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Verbs and Clauses

Verbal Predicates

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In the previous sections (especially Nominal Predicates), nominal predicates were discussed. They are used to identify or describe things, and they employ adjectives or nouns.

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In the following sections verbal predicates will be discussed. They are used to talk about events, and they employ verbs.

Weak and Strong Verbs

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A Beja dictionary of verbs would have two kinds of verbs - about 50% each: The first kind uses suffixes to express the subject, as in geed-an 'threw-Sg1'. The other uses prefixes to express the subject, as in a-gid 'Sg1-threw'.

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The verbs which take suffixes are called weak verbs (or class 1 verbs), and they are considered more simple. They will be introduced first. The others are called strong verbs (or class 2 verbs), and they will be introduced later.

Weak Verbs: Subject Suffixes

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There are only two basic paradigms for Beja tenses or aspects: (1) past, perfect and (2) present, imperfect. Most of the time, these two will simply be called past and present.

Verb Paradigms

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The focus will now be on the past and present tense of weak verbs in their positive (affirmative) forms. A full discussion of negative verb forms will follow later, but for the sake of completeness, the tables will include the negative forms even at this stage. Two important things should be noted for all paradigms:

  1. The past positive and present negative use the same verb stem. The only difference is the negative prefix ka- 'not'.

  2. In the plural of participles, the pitch-accent shifts towards the beginning of the word.

Verbs Ending in Consonants

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The subject suffixes of weak verbs are most easily recognized in verbs which end in consonants, such as yak- 'to start' or tam- 'to eat' (see below). For this reason, a verb stem which ends in a consonant will serve as the main paradigm for weak verbs.

Impv:

Impv:

Neg Impv:

Neg Impv:

yakaa!

Start (M)!

يَكا!

baayakaa!

Don't start (M)!

بايَكا!

yakii!

Start (F)!

يَكِي!

biiyakii!

Don't start (F)!

بٍييَكَيے!

yakaana!

Start (Pl)!

يَكانه!

baayakaana!

Don't start (Pl)!

بايَكانه!

Ptcp:

Ptcp:

Neg Ptcp:

Neg Ptcp:

yakaab

started (M)

يَكاب

baayakay

not started

بايَكَي

Past:

Past:

Neg Past:

Neg Past:

yakan

I started.

يَكَن

yakaab kaaki

I didn't start.

يَكاب كاكے

yaktaa

You (M) started.

يَكتا

yakaab kittaa

You (M) didn't start.

يَكاب كِتّا

yaktaayi

You (F) started.

يَكتايے

yakaat kittaayi

You (F) didn't start.

يَكات كِتّايے

yakiya

He started.

يَكِيه

yakaab kiiki

He didn't start.

يَكاب كٍيكے

yakta

She started.

يَكته

yakaat kitti

She didn't start.

يَكات كِتّے

yakna

We started.

يَكنه

yakaab kinki

We didn't start.

يَكاب كِنكے

yaktaana

You (Pl) started.

يَكتانه

yakaab kitteena

You (Pl) didn't start.

يَكاب كِتّێنه

yakiyaan

They started.

يَكِيان

yakaab kiikeen

They didn't start.

يَكاب كٍيكێن

Pres:

Pres:

Neg Pres:

Neg Pres:

yakani

I start.

يَكَنے

kayakan

I don't start.

كَيَكَن

yaktiniya

You (M) start.

يَكتِنِيه

kayaktaa

You (M) don't start.

كَيَكتا

yaktinii

You (F) start.

يَكتِنِي

kayaktaayi

You (F) don't start.

كَيَكتايے

yakiini

He starts.

يَكٍينے

kayakiya

He doesn't start.

كَيَكِيه

yaktini

She starts.

يَكتِنے

kayakta

She doesn't start.

كَيَكته

yaknay

We start.

يَكنَي

kayakna

We don't start.

كَيَكنه

yakteena

You (Pl) start.

يَكتێنه

kayaktaana

You (Pl) don't start.

كَيَكتانه

yakeen

They start.

يَكێن

kayakiyaan

They don't start.

كَيَكِيان

Fut:

Fut:

Neg Fut:

Neg Fut:

yaki andi

I will start.

يَكے أندے

yaki kaadi

I won't start.

يَكے كادے

Past Cont:

Past Cont:

Neg Past Cont:

Neg Past:

yaki

I was starting.

يَكے

yakaab kaaki

I didn't start.

يَكاب كاكے

yaktiya

You (M) were starting.

يَكتِيه

yakaab kittaa

You (M) didn't start.

يَكاب كِتّا

yaktiyi

You (F) were starting.

يَكتِيے

yakaat kittaayi

You (F) didn't start.

يَكات كِتّايے

yaki

He was starting.

يَكے

yakaab kiiki

He didn't start.

يَكاب كٍيكے

yakti

She was starting.

يَكتے

yakaat kitti

She didn't start.

يَكات كِتّے

yakni

We were starting.

يَكنے

yakaab kinki

We didn't start.

يَكاب كِنكے

yaktiina

You (Pl) were starting.

يَكتٍينه

yakaab kitteena

You (Pl) didn't start.

يَكاب كِتّێنه

yakiin

They were starting.

يَكٍين

yakaab kiikeen

They didn't start.

يَكاب كٍيكێن

Noun of Action:

Noun of Action:

u-yakti

the starting

أُ- يَكتے

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Here are some of the most frequent weak verbs. All weak verbs have the same basic pattern as yak- 'to start'.

List of the most frequent Weak Verbs

M'aa!

Come (very frequent)!

مآ!

Yakaa!

Start, arise (very frequent)!

يَكا!

Rhaa!

See (very frequent)!

رها!

Areeyaa!

Like, love (very frequent)!

أرێيا!

Giigaa!

Go away, leave (frequent)!

قٍيقا!

Sooyaa!

Tell, inform (frequent)!

سۆيا!

Daayaa!

Do (frequent)!

دايا!

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If a weak verb ends in a consonant, the suffix forms are exactly the same as for yak- in the paradigm above. If however the verb ends in a vowel or a glottal stop (h or hamzah), some minor adjustments of sounds need to be made. They will be presented further below.

Taman.

I ate.

تَمَن.

Tamtaa.

You (M) ate.

تَمتا.

Tamtaayi.

You (F) ate.

تَمتايے.

Tamiya.

He ate.

تَمِيه.

Tamta.

She ate.

تَمته.

Tamna.

We ate.

تَمنه.

Tamtaana.

You (Pl) ate.

تَمتانه.

Tamiyaan.

They ate.

تَمِيان.

Kataman.

I don't eat.

كَتَمَن.

Katamtaa.

You (M) don't eat.

كَتَمتا.

Katamtaayi.

You (F) don't eat.

كَتَمتايے.

Katamiya.

He doesn't eat.

كَتَمِيه.

Katamta.

She doesn't eat.

كَتَمته.

Katamna.

We don't eat.

كَتَمنه.

Katamtaana.

You (Pl) don't eat.

كَتَمتانه.

Katamiyaan.

They don't eat.

كَتَمِيان.

Tamani.

I eat, am eating.

تَمَنے.

Tamtiniya.

You (M) eat, are eating.

تَمتِنِيه.

Tamtinii.

You (F) eat, are eating.

تَمتِنِي.

Tamiini.

He eats, is eating.

تَمٍينے.

Tamtini, tamtini.

She eats, is eating.

تَمتِنے, تَمتِنے

Tamnay.

We eat, are eating.

تَمنَي.

Tamteena.

You (Pl) eat, are eating.

تَمتێنه.

Tameen.

They eat, are eating.

تَمێن.

Verbs Ending in Vowels 1

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The verb 'to come' starts with a glottal stop (hamzah) and ends in a vowel. Therefore some of its forms differ from those of other weak verbs, such as the first person singular y'an, y'ani and the third person plural y'een. Actually, this is the only weak verb which appears to be irregular, in particular because its imperative m'aa! is derived from an entirely different root [15].

Y'an.

I came

يِأَن.

Eetaa.

You (M) came.

ێتا.

Eetaayi.

You (F) came.

ێتايے.

Eeya, eeyiya.

He came.

ێيه, ێ يِيه.

Eeta.

She came.

ێته.

Eena.

We came.

ێنه.

Eetaana.

You (Pl) came.

ێتانه.

Eeyaan, eeyiyaan.

They came.

ێيان, ێيِيان.

Negative Present Tense of 'to come'

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The verb initial glottal stop (hamzah) appears, when the negative prefix is attached. Compare eetaa and ka'eetaa.

Kay'an.

I don't come.

كَيِأَن.

Ka'eetaa.

You (M) don't come.

كَئێتا.

Ka'eetaayi.

You (F) don't come.

كَئێتايے.

Ka'eeya.

He doesn't come.

كَئێيه.

Ka'eeta.

She doesn't come.

كَئێته.

Ka'eena.

We don't come.

كَئێنه.

Ka'eetaana.

You (Pl) don't come.

كَئێتانه.

Ka'eeyaan.

They don't come.

كَئێيان.

Y'ani.

I come / am coming.

يِأَنے.

Eetiniya.

You (M) come, are coming.

ێتِنِيه.

Eetinii, eetnii.

You (F) come, are coming.

ێتِنِي, ێ تنِي.

Eeyiini, aayiini.

He comes, is coming.

ێيٍينے.

Eetni.

She comes, is coming.

ێتنے.

Eenay.

We come, are coming.

ێنَي.

Eeteena.

You (Pl) come, are coming.

ێتێنه.

Y'een.

They come, are coming.

يِئێن.

Verbs Ending in Glottal Sounds

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For verbs which end in glottal sounds (h or hamzah), the vowel a is inserted between the stem and the suffix - unless the subject suffix starts with a vowel. For instance, compare gw'-an and gw'-a-taa.

Gw'an.

I drank.

قْوأَن.

Gw'ataa.

You (M) drank.

قْوأَتا.

Gw'ataayi.

You (F) drank.

قْوأَتايے.

Gw'iya.

He drank.

قْوإِيه.

Gw'ata.

She drank.

قْوأَته.

Gw'ana.

We drank.

قْوأَنه.

Gw'ataana.

You (Pl) drank.

قْوأَتانه.

Gw'iyaan.

They drank.

قْوإِيان.

Gw'ani.

I drink.

قْوأَنے.

Gw'atiniya.

You (M) drink.

قْوأَتِنِيه.

Gw'atnii.

You (F) drink.

قْوأَتنِي.

Gw'iini.

He drinks.

قْوإينے.

Gw'atni.

She drinks.

قْوأَتنے.

Gw'anay.

We drink.

قْوأَنَي.

Gw'ateena.

You (Pl) drink.

قْوأَتێنه.

Gw'een.

They drink.

قْوئێن.

Rhan.

I saw (sth.).

رهَن.

Rhitaa.

You (M) saw.

رهِتا.

Rhitaayi.

You (F) saw.

رهِتايے.

Rhiya.

He saw.

رهِيه.

Rhita.

She saw.

رهِته.

Rhina.

We saw.

رهِنه.

Rhitaana.

You (Pl) saw.

رهِتانه.

Rhiyaan.

They saw.

رهِيان.

Present Tense of 'to see'

Rhani.

I see (sth.).

رهَنے.

Rhitiniya.

You (M) see.

رهِتِنِيه.

Rhitnii.

You (F) see.

رهِتنِي.

Rhiini.

He sees

رهٍينے.

Rhitni.

She sees.

رهِتنے.

Rhinay.

We see.

رهِنَي.

Rhateena.

You (Pl) see.

رهَتێنه.

Rheen.

They see.

رهێن.

Verbs Ending in Vowels 2

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For verbs which end in vowels, -y is inserted if a suffix starts with a vowel.

Agriiyani.

I read, study.

أقرٍييَنے.

Agriitniya.

You (M) read, study.

أقرٍيتنِيه.

Agriitnii, agriitniyi.

You (F) read, study.

أقرٍيتنِي, أقرٍيتنِيے.

Agriiyiini.

He reads, studies.

أقرٍييٍينے.

Agriitni.

She reads, studies.

أقرٍيتنے.

Agriinay.

We read, study.

أقرٍينَي.

Agriiteena.

You (Pl) read, study.

أقرٍيتێنه.

Agriiyeen.

They read, study.

أقرٍييێن.

Ka'agriiyan.

I don't read, study.

كَأَقرٍييَن.

Ka'agriitaa.

You (M) don't read, study.

كَأَقرٍيتا.

Ka'agriitaayi.

You (F) don't read, study.

كَأَقرٍيتايے.

Ka'agriiya.

He doesn't read, study.

كَأَقرٍييه.

Ka'agriita.

She doesn't read, study.

كَأَقرٍيته.

Ka'agriina.

We don't read, study.

كَأَقرٍينه.

Ka'agriitaana.

You (Pl) don't read, study.

كَأَقرٍيتانه.

Ka'agriiyaan.

They don't read, study.

كَأَقرٍييان.

Verbs Ending in Vowels 3

Areeyani.

I like.

أرێيَنے.

Areetniya.

You (M) like.

أرێتنِيه.

Areetnii.

You (F) like.

أرێتنِي.

Areeyiini.

He likes.

أرێيٍينے.

Areetni.

She likes.

أرێتنے.

Areenay.

We like.

أرێنَي.

Areeteena.

You (Pl) like.

أرێتێنه.

Areeyeen.

They like.

أرێيێن.

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The transitive verb aree- 'to like' - before a direct object - starts and ends with a vowel - so the usual adjustments need to be made.

Ka'areeyan.

I don't like.

كَأَرێيَن.

Ka'areetaa.

You (M) don't like.

كَأَرێتا.

Ka'areetaayi.

You (F) don't like.

كَأَرێتايے.

Ka'areeya, ka'areeyiya.

He doesn't like.

كَأَرێيه, كَأَرێيِيه.

Ka'areeta.

She doesn't like.

كَأَرێته.

Ka'areena.

We don't like.

كَأَرێنه.

Ka'areetaana.

You (Pl) don't like.

كَأَرێتانه.

Ka'areeyaan, ka'areeyiyaan.

They don't like.

كَأَرێيان, كَأَرێيِيان.

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As an auxiliary, introducing a sentencial complement, a shorter form of aree is used.

Negative Present Tense of 'to like' (short form)

Karan.

I don't like (to do sth.).

كَرَن.

Kareetaa.

You (M) don't like (to do sth.).

كَرێتا.

Kareetaayi.

You (F) don't like (to do sth.).

كَرێتايے.

Kareeya.

He doesn't like (to do sth.).

كَرێيه.

Kareeta.

She doesn't like (to do sth.).

كَرێته.

Kareena.

We don't like (to do sth.).

كَرێنه.

Kareetaana.

You (Pl) don't like (to do sth.).

كَرێتانه.

Kareeyaan.

They don't like (to do sth.).

كَرێيان.

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Since the past and present forms of the third person are quite different from each other, it is suggested to study these with a list of verbs such as here below.

Afirhiya / afirhiini.

He rejoiced / He rejoices.

أفِرهِيه / أفِرهٍينے.

Afreeyiya / afreeyiini.

He was bad / He is bad.

أفرێيِيه / أفرێيٍينے.

Anf'iya / anf'iini.

He was fit / He is fit.

أنفإِيه / أنفإينے.

Assiya / assiini.

He covered / He covers.

أسِّيه / أسٍّينے.

Bireetiya / bireetiini.

It rained / It rains.

بِرێتِيه / بِرێتٍينے.

Daasiya / daasiini.

He put / He puts.

داسِيه / داسٍينے.

Daayiya / daayiini.

He did / He does.

دايِيه / دايٍينے.

Hasamiya / hasamiini.

He passed / He passes.

هَسَمِيه / هَسَمٍينے.

Hawsooya, hawsooyiya / hawsooyiini.

He dreamt / He dreams.

هَوسۆيه, هَوسۆيِيه / هَوسۆيٍينے.

Hiisiya / hiisiini, hiisiyiini.

He thought / He thinks.

هٍيسِيه / هٍيسٍينے.

Jarrabiya / jarrabiini.

He tried / He tries.

جَرَّبِيه / جَرَّبٍينے.

Kwinhiya / kwinhiini.

He sounded, shouted / He sounds, shouts.

كْوِنهِيه / كْوِنهٍينے.

Lingwuuyiya / lingwuuyiini.

He sent / He sends.

لِنقْوٌويِيه / لِنقْوٌويٍينے.

Mitiyaayiya / mitiyaayiini.

He described / He describes.

مِتِيايِيه / مِتِيايٍينے.

Neewiya / neewiini.

He insulted / He insults.

نێوِيه / نێوٍينے.

Nuuniya / nuuniini.

He sent, handed / He sends, hands.

نٌونِيه / نٌونٍينے.

Rafoofiya / rafoofiini.

He beat / He beats.

رَفۆفِيه / رَفۆفٍينے.

Saffagiya / saffagiini.

He clapped hands / He claps hands.

سَفَّقِيه / سَفَّقٍينے.

Tawwariya / tawwariini.

He developed / He develops.

تَوَّرِيه / تَوَّرٍينے.

Imperatives

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From the imperatives it is easy to recognize whether a verb is weak or strong. Here follows another list of the imperatives of weak verbs. The most frequent ones are marked and should be studied first.

Adgiraa / adgirii / adgiraana!

Be able (M) / (F) / (Pl)! (frequent)

أدقِرا / أدقِرِي / أدقِرانه!

Afasaa / afasii / afasaana!

Explain, make known (M) / (F) / (Pl)!

أفَسا / أفَسِي / أفَسانه!

Afhamaa / afhamii / afhamaana!

Understand (M) / (F) / (Pl)!

أفهَما / أفهَمِي / أفهَمانه!

Afooyaa / afooyii / afooyaana!

Forgive (M) / (F) / (Pl)!

أفۆيا / أفۆيِي / أفۆيانه!

Agriiyaa / agriiyii / agriiyaana!

Read (M) / (F) / (Pl)!

أقرٍييا / أقرٍييِي / أقرٍييانه!

Areeyaa / areeyii / areeyaana!

Want, like (M) / (F) / (Pl)! (frequent)

أرێيا / أرێيِي / أرێيانه!

Asbiraa / asbirii / asbiraana!

Be patient (M) / (F) / (Pl)!

أسبِرا / أسبِرِي / أسبِرانه!

Assaa / assii / assaana!

Cover (sth.) (M) / (F) / (Pl)!

أسّا / أسِّي / أسّانه!

B'aa! / B'ii / b'aana!

Lie down (M) / (F) / (Pl)!

بآ! / بإي / بآنه!

Badooyaa / badooyii / badooyaana!

Begin (M) / (F) / (Pl)!

بَدۆيا / بَدۆيِي / بَدۆيانه!

Bhaliiyaa / bhaliiyii / bhaliiyaana!

Speak, Talk (M) / (F) / (Pl)!

بهَلٍييا / بهَلٍييِي / بهَلٍييانه!

Daayaa / daayii / daayaana!

Do (M) / (F) / (Pl)! (frequent)

دايا / دايِي / دايانه!

Dhaabaa / Dhaabii / dhaabaana!

Run (M) / (F) / (Pl)!

ڈابا / ڈابِي / ڈابانه!

Dhibaa / dhibii / dhibaana!

Fall (M) / (F) / (Pl)!

ڈِبا / ڈِبِي / ڈِبانه!

Diiraa / Diirii / diiraana!

Stare (M) / (F) / (Pl)!

دٍيرا / دٍيرِي / دٍيرانه!

Diwaa / diwii / diwaana!

Sleep (M) / (F) / (Pl)!

دِوا / دِوِي / دِوانه!

Faayisaa / faayisii / faayisaana!

Finish something (M) / (F) / (Pl)!

فايِسا / فايِسِي / فايِسانه!

Fagaramaa / fagaramii / fagaramaana!

Have courage (M) / (F) / (Pl)!

فَقَرَما / فَقَرَمِي / فَقَرَمانه!

Fartakaa / fartakii / fartakaana!

Disperse (M) / (F) / (Pl)!

فَرتَكا / فَرتَكِي / فَرتَكانه!

Fiinaa / fiinii / fiinaana!

Rest (M) / (F) / (Pl)!

فٍينا / فٍينِي / فٍينانه!

Giigaa / giigii / giigaana!

Leave, go away (M) / (F) / (Pl)! (frequent)

قٍيقا / قٍيقِي / قٍيقانه!

Gw'aa / gw'ii / gw'aana!

Drink (M) / (F) / (Pl)! (frequent)

قْوآ / قْوإي / قْوآنه!

Gw'asaa / gw'asii / gw'asaana!

Give to drink (M) / (F) / (Pl)!

قْوأَسا / قْوأَسِي / قْوأَسانه!

Gwuugamaa / gwuugamii / gwuugamaana!

Look (quickly) (M) / (F) / (Pl)!

قْوٌوقَما / قْوٌوقَمِي / قْوٌوقَمانه!

Ha'aa / ha'ii / haam'aana!

Bring (M) / (F) / (Pl)! (very frequent)

هَآ / هَإي / هامآنه!

Hadiidaa / hadiidii / hadiidaana!

Talk (M) / (F) / (Pl)!

هَدٍيدا / هَدٍيدِي / هَدٍيدانه!

Hawaayaa / hawaayii / hawaayaana!

Play (M) / (F) / (Pl)!

هَوايا / هَوايِي / هَوايانه!

Hiisaa / hiisii / hiisaana!

Think (M) / (F) / (Pl)!

هٍيسا / هٍيسِي / هٍيسانه!

Hireeraa / hireerii / hireeraana!

Walk (M) / (F) / (Pl)!

هِرێرا / هِرێرِي / هِرێرانه!

Hukwumaa / hukwumii / hukwumaana!

Rule, govern, decide (M) / (F) / (Pl)!

هُكْوُما / هُكْوُمِي / هُكْوُمانه!

Iibaabaa / iibaabii / iibaabaana!

Travel (M) / (F) / (Pl)!

إيبابا / إيبابِي / إيبابانه!

Jarrabaa / jarrabii / jarrabaana!

Try (sth.) (M) / (F) / (Pl)!

جَرَّبا / جَرَّبِي / جَرَّبانه!

Kafaa / kafii / kafaana!

Sing / dance (M) / (F) / (Pl)!

كَفا / كَفِي / كَفانه!

Kwaramaa / Kwaramii / kwaramaana!

Bow down (M) / (F) / (Pl)!

كْوَرَما / كْوَرَمِي / كْوَرَمانه!

Lakkataa / lakkatii / lakkataana!

Collect (M) / (F) / (Pl)!

لَكَّتا / لَكَّتِي / لَكَّتانه!

Lhaa / lhii / lhaana!

Be angry, be ill (M) / (F) / (Pl)!

لها / لهِي / لهانه!

M'aa / m'ii / m'aana!

Come (M) / (F) / (Pl)! (very frequent)

مآ / مإي / مآنه!

Mhasaa / mhasii / mhasaana!

Eat lunch (M) / (F) / (Pl)!

مهَسا / مهَسِي / مهَسانه!

Neewaa / neewii / neewaana!

Insult, blaspheme (M) / (F) / (Pl)!

نێوا / نێوِي / نێوانه!

Niinaa / niinii / niinaana!

Hum, sing (M) / (F) / (Pl)!

نٍينا / نٍينِي / نٍينانه!

Oobaa / oobii / oobaana!

Track (M) / (F) / (Pl)!

ۆبا / ۆبِي / ۆبانه!

Raataa, araataa / raatii / raataana!

Ask (M) / (F) / (Pl)! (frequent)

راتا, أ راتا / راتِي / راتانه!

Rayhamaa / rayhamii / rayhamaana!

Be relaxed, comforted (M) / (F) / (Pl)!

رَيهَما / رَيهَمِي / رَيهَمانه!

Reewaa / reewii / reewaana!

Climb, stop (M) / (F) / (Pl)!

رێوا / رێوِي / رێوانه!

Rhisaa / rhisii / rhisaana!

Show (M) / (F) / (Pl)!

رهِسا / رهِسِي / رهِسانه!

Sakaa / sakii / sakaana!

Work, do (M) / (F) / (Pl)! (frequent)

سَكا / سَكِي / سَكانه!

Salaamaa / salaamii / salaamaana!

Greet (M) / (F) / (Pl)!

سَلاما / سَلامِي / سَلامانه!

Shagaamaa / shagaamii / shagaamaana!

Work (M) / (F) / (Pl)!

شَقاما / شَقامِي / شَقامانه!

Shakiidhaa / shakiidhii / shakiidhaana!

Scratch (Rep) (M) / (F) / (Pl)!

شَكٍيڈا / شَكٍيڈِي / شَكٍيڈانه!

Shuumaa / shuumii / shuumaana!

Enter (M) / (F) / (Pl)!

شٌوما / شٌومِي / شٌومانه!

Soomaayaa / soomaayii / soomaayaana!

Tell a secret (M) / (F) / (Pl)!

سۆمايا / سۆمايِي / سۆمايانه!

Sooyaa / sooyii / sooyaana!

Inform, tell (M) / (F) / (Pl)! (frequent)

سۆيا / سۆيِي / سۆيانه!

Tamaa / tamii / tamaana!

Eat (M) / (F) / (Pl)!

تَما / تَمِي / تَمانه!

Tatehaa / Tatehii / tatehaana!

Touch (Rep) (M) / (F) / (Pl)!

تَتها / تَتهِي / تَتهانه!

Tehaa! / Tehii / tehaana!

Touch once (M) / (F) / (Pl)!

تها! / تهِي / تهانه!

Thathaa / thathii / thathaana!

Have a seat (M) / (F) / (Pl)!

ٹَٹا / ٹَٹِي / ٹَٹانه!

Tikwaa / tikwii / tikwaana!

Descend (M) / (F) / (Pl)!

تِكْوا / تِكْوِي / تِكْوانه!

Waawaa! Waawii / waawaana!

Cry, weep (M) / (F) / (Pl)!

واوا! واوِي / واوانه!

<320>

D: doctor, P: patient

#1

D: Oosmook aab eeyadna?

oo-sm-ook aab Zero-eeyad-na

D: What is your name?

ArtSgMObj-name-PossSg2 whoObjM ImpfPl3Pf-say-ImpfPl3

#2

P: Uusmu Aliib eeyadna.

uu-sm-u aliib Zero-eeyad-na

P: They call me Ali.

ArtSgMSubj-name-PossSg1 Ali ImpfPl3Pf-say-ImpfPl3

#3

D: Naakaat massi tibariya?

naakaat massi ti-bari-ya

D: How old are you?

how.many year PerfSg2MPf-have-PerfSg2M

#4

P: Oon'ani timasseeti daayiib kaakan.

oon-'ani ti-masseet-i daayiib kaa-kan

P: Myself, I don't know the years well.

NearSgMObjPf-Sg1 ArtPlF-year-CasGen good NegImpfSg1Pf-know

#5

Laakiin Haayli Sillaassi oon'umhiinaan eeyanhoob, faraayu.

laakiin haayli sillaassi oon-'u-mhiinaan ee-ya-nhoob far-aay-u

But I was born when Haile Selassie was here.

but Haile Selassie NearSgMObjPf-ArtSgM-place come-PerfSg3M-Adv+when born-PtcpPast-IdSg13M

#6

D: Naanaatii gwirhamtiniya / gwiryamtiniya?

naanaat-ii gwirham-tiniya

D: From what do you suffer?

what.thing-Adv+off suffer-ImpfSg2M

#7

P: Uun'ani haafiit lhanayteeh gwiryamani.

uun-'ani haaf-iit lhanayt-eeh gwirham-ani

P: I suffer from stomach trouble.

NearSgMSubjPf-Sg1 belly-CasGen sickness-PossSg3 suffer-ImpfSg1

#8

D: Naakaat tiina tibariya eettilhanayteek gwiryamtaaneeka?

naakaat tiin-a ti-bariy-a eet-ti-lhanayt-eek gwirham-taan-ee-ka

D: How many days is it (do you have) since you suffer from this your sickness?

how.many sun-Pl PerfSg2MPf-have-PerfSg2M NearPlFObjPf-ArtPlF-sickness-PossSg2 suffer-PerfPl2-Wh-than

#9

P: Uun amsi nagaaru / asaramaatu, hiisani.

uun amsi nagaar-u asaramaat-u hiis-ani

P: Now today (Lit this today) it is the second day / a week, I think.

NearSgMSubj today second.day-IdSg13M seven-IdSg13F think-ImpfSg1

#10

D: Huutamtiniya?

huutam-tiniya

D: Do you vomit?

vomit-ImpfSg2M

#11

P: Kahuutaman.

ka-huutam-an

P: I don't vomit.

NegImpfSg1Pf-vomit-NegImpfSg1

#12

D: Malaal teebiya?

malaal t-eebi-ya

D: Do you have diarrhea?

diarrhea ImpfSg2MPf-go-ImpfSg2M

#13

P: Doorka doorka malaal eebi.

door-ka door-ka malaal Zero-eebi

P: From time to time I have diarrhea.

time-than time-than diarrhea ImpfSg1Pf-go

#14

D: Wanaaneeka naan tamta?

wanaanee-ka naan tam-ta

D: Since this morning, what did you eat?

before.morning-Adv+since what eat-PerfSg3F

#15

P: Tum'ariitiib win nifis kaabaru.

tu-m'ariit-iib win nifis kaa-baru

P: I have no great appetite for any meal.

ArtSgF-food-Adv+at big appetite NegImpfSg1Pf-have

#16

D: Suuri dabaab hakiim rhamaawa?

suuri dabaab hakiim rham-aa-wa

D: Before this, have you been seen by a doctor?

ahead additionally doctor be.seen-PtcpPast-IdSg2M

#17

P: Kaaki.

kaa-ki

P: I haven't.

NegImpfSg1Pf-be

#18

D: Aflaa, uyafook haaksa!

aflaa u-yaf-ook haaks-a

D: Well, open your mouth.

so.then ArtSgM-mouth-PossSg2 open-FutSg

#19

P: Daayiitu.

daayiit-u

P: O.K.

good-IdSg13F

#20

D: Naat hooy kalawta / kitihaayi.

naat hooy ka-law-ta kit-iha

D: Nothing can be seen here / nothing is there.

thing at NegImpfSg3FPf-appear-NegImpfSg3F NegImpfSg3FPf-be

#21

Oon'oomhiin b'a!

oon-'oo-mhiin b'-a

Lie down here!

NearSgMObjPf-ArtSgMObj-place lie.down-ImpvM

#22

P: Daayiitu.

daayiit-u

P: O.K.

good-IdSg13F

#23

D: Naat kitbaruwa.

naat kit-baru-wa

D: You don't have anything.

thing NegImpfSg2MPf-have-NegImpfSg2M

#24

Laakiin mheel gaal dehook iiktib andi.

laakiin mheel gaal dehook ii-ktib a-ndi

But I will prescribe (Lit write) a medicine for you.

but spice one toSg2M FutSg-write ImpfSg1Pf-say

#25

Oon'oomheel faayistiihoob, shaawi gaabalaaheeb!

oon-'oo-mheel faayis-tii-hoob shaawi gaabal-aa-heeb

When you have finished this medicine, visit me again!

NearSgMObjPf-ArtSgMObj-spice finish.something-PastSg3F-Adv+when additionally visit-ImpvM-ObjSg1

#26

P: Allaa tankwiikweek. L'aab naayaa!

allaa Zero-tankwiikw-eek l'-aab naa-yaa

P: If God allows. Good bye!

God ImpfSg3MPf-create-Adv+if be.cool-PtcpPast pass.night-ImpvM

#27

D: Asigaab, l'aab naayaa!

asigaab l'-aab naa-yaa

D: The same to you, good bye!

peaceful be.cool-PtcpPast pass.night-ImpvM

<321>

١ ۆسمۆك آب ێيَدنه? ٢ أٌوسمُ ألٍيب ێيَدنه. ٣ناكات مَسّے تِبَرِيه? ٤ۆنأَنے تِمَسّێتے دايٍيب كاكَن. ٥لاكٍين هايلے سِلّاسّے ۆنءُمهٍينان ێيَنهۆب, فَرايُ. ٦ناناتِي قْوِرهَمتِنِيه? ٧ أٌونأَنے هافٍيت لهَنَيتێه قْوِرهَمَنے. ٨ناكات تٍينه تِبَرِيه ێتِّلهَنَيتێك قْوِرهَمتانێكه? ٩ أٌون أمسے نَقارُ / أسَرَماتُ, هٍيسَنے. ١٠ هٌوتَمتِنِيه? ١١ كَهٌوتَمَن. ١٢ مَلال تێبِيه? ١٣ دۆركه دۆركه مَلال ێبے. ١٤ وَنانێكه نان تَمته? ١٥ تُمأَرٍيتٍيب وِن نِفِس كابَرُ. ١٦ سٌورے دَبَب هَكٍيم رهَماوه? ١٧ كاكے. ١٨ أفلا, أُيَفۆك هاكسه! ١٩ دايٍيتُ. ٢٠ نات هۆي كَلَوته / كِتِهه. ٢١ ۆنؤۆمهٍين بأه! ٢٢ دايٍيتُ. ٢٣ نات كِتبَرُوه. ٢٤ لاكٍين مهێل قال دهۆك إيكتِب أندے. ٢٥ ۆنؤۆمهێل فايِستٍيهۆب, شاوے قابَلاهێب! ٢٦ ألّا تَنكْوٍيكْوێك. لآب نايا! ٢٧ أسِقاب, لآب نايا!

Strong Verbs: Subject Prefixes

<322>

The so-called strong verbs or class 2 verbs are typical of Semitic verbs. They have subject prefixes like a-, t-, i-. Although these verbs are considered to be difficult and full of irregularities, it will be seen that the apparent exceptions are manageable. The most frequent verbs will be tackled first, starting with the verb 'to say'.

Person Affixes

<323>

The past tense forms of the strong verb 'I said' etc. are already familiar from the present tense forms of the weak verb 'I start' (see Verbs Ending in Consonants above). The reason is that the suffixes of 'to start' are the same as the paradigm of 'to say': Compare the suffixes of yak- 'to start' and the paradigm of 'to say' in Table 29 below.

<324>

Actually, there are two paradigms of 'I said, you said' etc., namely -ni and -di. Presently, for most Beja dialects the second paradigm is the most common one, while the other one has only survived with certain speakers and in certain forms.

1

2 / 3

1

2 / 3

Yakani.

Ani / adi.

I start.

يَكَنے.

I said.

أنے / أدے.

Yaktiniya.

Tiniya / tidiya.

You (M) start.

يَكتِنِيه.

You (M) said.

تِنِيه / تِدِيه.

Yaktinii.

Tinii / tidii.

You (F) start.

يَكتِنِي.

You (F) said.

تِنِي / تِدِي.

Yakiini.

Ini / idi.

He starts.

يَكٍينے.

He said.

إنے / إدے.

Yaktini.

Tini / tidi.

She starts.

يَكتِنے.

She said.

تِنے / تِدے.

Yaknay.

Nini / nidi.

We start.

يَكنَي.

We said.

نِنے / نِدے.

Yakteena.

Teena / tidiina.

You (Pl) start.

يَكتێنه.

You (Pl) said.

تێنه / تِدٍينه.

Yakeen.

Een / idiin.

They start.

يَكێن.

They said.

ێن / إدٍين.

<325>

The verb stem and the person affixes can be extracted from Table 29, as shown in Table 30. Other tenses use exactly the same person affixes, but with different verb stems.

Affixes:

'say':

a-

I (Past / Perf)

أ-

Adi.

I said.

أدے.

ti- -a

you (M Past)

تے--أ

Tidiya.

You (M) said.

تِدِيه.

ti- -i

you (F Past)

تے--إ

Tidii.

You (F) said.

تِدِي.

i-

he (Past)

إ-

Idi.

He said.

إدے.

ti-

she (Past)

تے -

Tidi.

She said.

تِدے.

ni-

we (Past)

نے -

Nidi.

We said.

نِدے.

ti- -na

you (Pl Past)

تے--نه

Tidiina.

You (Pl) said.

تِدٍينه.

i- -n / -na

they (Past)

إ- -ن/-نه

Idiin.

They said.

إدٍين.

Patterns of Strong Verbs and the Basic Stem

<326>

The basic stem of a strong verb may have up to 7 different shapes. All of these shapes can largely be predicted from the imperative form of a verb - or more exactly: from the CV pattern of the imperative, after the imperative suffix -a is deleted. Therefore it is useful to always identify the imperative and the way in which consonants (C) and vowels (V) follow each other in the imperative.

<327>

To give an example: The imperative of the verb 'to write' is kitiba, so its basic Form is kitib-, and its CV pattern is CiCiC.

<328>

For most verbs, the other tense, aspect forms can be predicted from this CV pattern: Verbs of the same CV pattern generally behave in the same way. Even the difference between verbs of the patterns CiCiC and CiC can largely be ignored. So kitiba 'write' and tiba 'fill' have the patterns CiCiC- and CiC-, and all verbs of this pattern behave in the same way.

<329>

Here are two more examples of identifying the basic stem and its CV pattern:

  • For the verb diya 'say (M)!' the stem would be diy- 'to say', and the CV pattern would be Ciy-.

  • For the verb d'iya 'do (M)!' the stem would be d'iy- 'to do', and the CV pattern would be C'iy-.

The Basic Stem and the Other Stems

<330>

The (Sg M) form of the imperative is usually quoted as the most neutral, most basic form of a verb, and the imperative without the '(M)' suffix -a is usually quoted as the basic stem of the verb.

<331>

So the verb 'to say' is diya (literally: 'say (M)'!), and the stem is diy. For 'to say', the imperative stem and the imperative forms therefore are as follows:

-diy-

Basic Stem of 'to say'

Diya!

Say (M)!

دِيه!

Diyi!

Say (F)!

دِيے!

Diina! (< diy-na)

Say (Pl)!

دٍينه! (< دِي-نه)

<332>

The tense, aspect which is used most frequently - especially in narratives (stories), is the past, perfect. Here is the complete past, perfect paradigm of diya 'to say' again. This paradigm is already familiar from the suffixes of the weak verbs (see yak 'to arise' or tam 'to eat', above).

Past, Perfect Paradigm of 'to say'

Adi.

I said.

أدے.

Tidiya.

You (M) said.

تِدِيه.

Tidii.

You (F) said.

تِدِي.

Idi.

He said.

إدے.

Tidi.

She said.

تِدے.

Nidi.

We said.

نِدے.

Tidiina.

You (Pl) said.

تِدٍينه.

Idiin.

They said.

إدٍين.

Basic Stem (Number 1) and Negative Present

<333>

The negative present tense uses the same forms as the past tense, but with ki- 'not' as a prefix. Because of this prefix, some minor adjustments need to be made: As usual, the t- will be adjusted (assimilated) to the next consonant, and the suffix for 'they' will be -n after vowels, but -na after consonants. And before a, the ki- will change to ka-.

<334>

To identify all of these phonological changes, compare the tables above and below.

-diy-

Basic Stem of 'to say'

Kaadi.

I don't say.

كادے.

Kiddiya.

You (M) don't say.

كِدِّيه.

Kiddiyi.

You (F) don't say.

كِدِّيے.

Kiidi.

He doesn't say.

كٍيدے.

Kiddi.

She doesn't say.

كِدّے.

Kindi.

We don't say.

كِندے.

Kiddiina.

You (Pl) don't say.

كِدٍّينه.

Kiidiin.

They don't say.

كٍيدٍين.

Basic Stem (Number 1) and Participle

<335>

The participle is the verb form which behaves like an adjective. It is formed by attaching -a, -aab, -aat to the basic stem.

-diy-

Basic Stem of 'to say'

diyaab

having said (M)

دِياب

diyaat

having said (F)

دِيات

Negative Imperative Stem (Number 2)

<336>

The negative imperative stem differs from the basic stem because the last syllable is lengthened. For the verb diy- 'to say' there is only one syllable, and it is lengthened to diiy-.

-diiy-

Stem of 'to say (Neg Impv)'

Baadiiya!

Don't say (M)!

بادٍييه!

Biidiiyi!

Don't say (F)!

بٍيدٍييے!

Baadiina!

Don't say (Pl)!

بادٍينه!

Present Singular and Plural Stems (Number 3 and 4)

<337>

For the present tense, strong verbs even use two stems - one for present singular and one for present plural. In the case of 'to say', the two stems are ndi (Sg), and eeyad (Pl).

-ndi-

Stem of 'to say (Pres Sg)'

Andi.

I say.

أندے.

Tindiya.

You (M) say.

تِندِيه.

Tindii.

You (F) say.

تِندِي.

indi.

He says.

إندے.

Tindi.

She says.

تِندے.

-eeyad-

Stem of 'to say (Pres Pl)'

Neeyad.

We say.

نێيَد.

Teeyadna.

You (Pl) say.

تێيَدنه.

Eeyadna.

They say.

ێيَدنه.

Future Positive and Negative Stem (Number 5)

<338>

The present tense of 'to say' also serves as an auxiliary to express the future ('I will' etc.) as well as the intentional ('I want to') for all verbs. So the paradigms of 'I will say' / 'I won't say' are as follows.

-iyaad-

Stem of 'to say (Fut)'

Iyaad andi / Iyaad kaadi.

I will say / won't say.

إياد أندے / إياد كادے.

Iyaad tindiya / Iyaad kiddiya.

You (M) will say / won't say.

إياد تِندِيه / إياد كِدِّيه.

Iyaad tindii / Iyaad kiddiyi.

You (F) will say / won't say.

إياد تِندِي / إياد كِدِّيے.

Iyaad indi / Iyaad kiidi.

He will say / won't say.

إياد إندے / إياد كٍيدے.

Iyaad tindi / Iyaad kiddi.

She will say / won't say.

إياد تِندے / إياد كِدّے.

Niyaad neeyad / Niyaad kindi.

We will say / won't say.

نِياد نێيَد / نِياد كِندے.

Iyaad teeyadna / Iyaad kiddiina.

You (Pl) will say / won't say

إياد تێيَدنه / إياد كِدٍّينه.

Iyaad eeyadna / Iyaad kiidiin.

They will say / won't say.

إياد ێيَدنه / إياد كٍيدٍين.

Past Continuous Stem (Number 6)

<339>

The past continuous forms express ongoing or habitual events in the past, as well as non-real events, especially in conditional sentences like 'I would have said, if ...' (It has also been called pluperfect). The stem of this paradigm is -iiyid-.

-iiyid-

Stem of 'to say (Past Cont)'

Iiyid.

I was saying, would say.

إييِد.

Tiiyida.

You (M) were saying, would say.

تٍييِده.

Tiiyidi.

You (F) were saying, would say.

تٍييِدے.

Iiyid.

He was saying, would say.

إييِد.

Tiiyid.

She was saying, would say.

تٍييِد.

Niiyid.

We were saying, would say.

نٍييِد.

Tiiyidna.

You (Pl) were saying, would say.

تٍييِدنه.

Iiyidna.

They were saying, would say.

إييِدنه.

-yaad-

Stem of Action Noun

oo-miyaad

the saying

ۆ- مِياد

More Verb Forms

<340>

The above verb stems provide all tense, aspect forms of the Beja verb system. There are only two kinds of extensions which can be added to these verb forms:

  1. Auxiliary verbs such as the verb indicating future - e.g. y'i andi 'I will come (Lit To-come I-say)' (See section Tense and Aspect below).

  2. Adverbial suffixes such as the suffix indicating conditional - e.g. andi 'I say, mean' > andiyeek 'If I say' (See section Clause Sub-Ordination below).

The Main Paradigms

<341>

The verb which serves as the first example for strong verbs is diya 'to say'. This verb has a very high frequency both in everyday language and in narratives. The table below gives a complete overview of the forms of this verb. The overview of other verb families will be presented according to the same pattern. The positive forms will always be given on the left hand side, and the negative forms on the right.

<342>

The table below includes the different stems of the verb, together with the paradigms that are based on it.

<343>

It should be noted again that there are seven different stems, numbered from 1 to 7. Roughly speaking, the stems which are used most frequently are stems 1 to 4. It will be seen that the basic stem (number 1), serves as the basis for most of the paradigms. The numbers referring to the seven stems are noted in the following paradigms for each conjugational pattern. Further reference to these seven stems can be found in the annex.

1 di(y)

1 Basic Stem

١ دے (ي)

2 dii(y)

2. Negative Stem

٢ دِي (ي)

Impv:

Neg Impv:

Diya!

Say (M)!

دِيه!

Baadiiya!

Don't say (M)!

بادٍييه!

Diyi!

Say (F)!

دِيے!

Biidiiyi!

Don't say (F)!

بٍيدٍييے!

Diina!

Say (Pl)!

دٍينه!

Baadiina!

Don't say (Pl)!

بادٍينه!

1

Ptcp/Sub:

١

2

Neg Ptcp:

٢

diyaab

saying

دِياب

baadi

not saying

بادے

1

Past:

١

1

Neg Past:

١

Adi.

I said.

أدے.

Diyaab kaaki.

I didn't say.

دِياب كاكے.

Tidiya.

You (M) said.

تِدِيه.

Diyaab kittaa.

You (M) didn't say.

دِياب كِتّا.

Tidii.

You (F) said.

تِدِي.

Diyaat kittaayi.

You (F) didn't say.

دِيات كِتّايے.

Idi.

He said.

إدے.

Diyaab kiiki.

He didn't say.

دِياب كٍيكے.

Tidi.

She said.

تِدے.

Diyaat kitti.

She didn't say.

دِيات كِتّے.

Nidi.

We said.

نِدے.

Diyaab kinki.

We didn't say.

دِياب كِنكے.

Tidiina.

You (Pl) said.

تِدٍينه.

Diyaab kitteena.

You (Pl) didn't say.

دِياب كِتّێنه.

Idiin.

They said.

إدٍين.

Diyaab kiikeen.

They didn't say.

دِياب كٍيكێن.

3

Pres Sg:

٣

1

Neg Pres:

١

Andi.

I say.

أندے.

Kaadi.

I don't say.

كادے.

Tindiya.

You (M) say.

تِندِيه.

Kiddiya.

You (M) don't say.

كِدِّيه.

Tindii.

You (F) say.

تِندِي.

Kiddii.

You (F) don't say.

كِدِّي.

Indi.

He says.

إندے.

Kiidi.

He doesn't say.

كٍيدے.

Tindi.

She says.

تِندے.

Kiddi.

She doesn't say.

كِدّے.

4

Pres Pl:

٤

1

Neg Pres Pl:

١

Neeyad.

We say.

نێيَد.

Kindi.

We don't say.

كِندے.

Teeyadna.

You (Pl) say.

تێيَدنه.

Kiddiina.

You (Pl) don't say.

كِدٍّينه.

Eeyadna.

They say.

ێيَدنه.

Kiidiin.

They don't say.

كٍيدٍين.

5

Fut:

٥

5

Neg Fut:

٥

Iyaad andi.

I will say.

إياد أندے.

Iyaad kaadi.

I won't say.

ياد كادے.

6

Past Cont:

٦

1

Neg Past Cont:

١

Iiyid.

I was saying.

إييِد.

Diyaab kaaki.

I didn't say.

دِياب كاكے.

Tiiyida.

You (M) were saying.

تٍييِده.

Diyaab kittaa.

You (M) didn't say.

دِياب كِتّا.

Tiiyidi.

You (F) were saying.

تٍييِدے.

Diyaat kittaayi.

You (F) didn't say.

دِيات كِتّايے.

Iiyid.

He was saying.

إييِد.

Diyaab kiiki.

He didn't say.

دِياب كٍيكے.

Tiiyid.

She was saying.

تٍييِد.

Diyaat kitti.

She didn't say.

دِيات كِتّے.

Niiyid.

We were saying.

نٍييِد.

Diyaab kinki.

We didn't say.

دِياب كِنكے.

Tiiyidna.

You (Pl) were saying.

تٍييِدنه.

Diyaab kitteena.

You (Pl) didn't say.

دِياب كِتّێنه.

Iiyidna.

They were saying.

إييِدنه.

Diyaab kiikeen.

They didn't say.

دِياب كٍيكێن.

7

Noun of Action:

٧

oo-myaad

the saying

ۆ- مياد

<344>

There are no other verbs of exactly the same pattern as diy- 'to say'. The closest similarity is with the pattern of d'iy- 'to do, to put'.

1 d'i(y)

1 Basic Stem

١ دإِ (ي)

2 d'ii(y)

2 Negative Stem

٢ دإي (ي)

Impv:

Neg Impv:

D'iya!

Do (M) !

دإِيه!

Baad'aayaay!

Don't do (M) !

بادإييه!

D'iyi!

Do (F)!

دإِيے!

Biid'iiyi!

Don't do (F)!

بٍيدإييے!

D'iina!

Do (Pl)!

دإينه!

Baad'iina!

Don't do (Pl)!

بادإينه!

1

Ptcp / Sub:

١

2

Neg Ptcp:

٢

d'iyaab

having done

دإِياب

baad'iiyay

not doing

بادإييَي

1

Past:

١

1

Neg Past:

١

Ad'i.

I did.

أدإِ.

D'iyaab kaaki.

I didn't say.

دإِياب كاكے.

Tid'iya.

You (M) did.

تِدإِيه.

D'iyaab kittaa.

You (M) didn't say.

دإِياب كِتّا.

Tid'ii.

You (F) did.

تِدإي.

D'iyaat kittaayi.

You (F) didn't say.

دإِيات كِتّايے.

Id'i.

He did.

إدإِ.

D'iyaab kiiki.

He didn't say.

دإِياب كٍيكے.

Tid'i.

She did.

تِدإِ.

D'iyaat kitti.

She didn't say.

دإِيات كِتّے.

Nid'i.

We did.

نِدإِ.

D'iyaab kinki.

We didn't say.

دإِياب كِنكے.

Tid'iina.

You (Pl) did.

تِدإينه.

D'iyaab kitteena.

You (Pl) didn't say.

دإِياب كِتّێنه.

Id'iin.

They did.

إدإين.

D'iyaab kiikeen.

They didn't say.

دإِياب كٍيكێن.

3

Pres Sg:

٣

1

Neg Pres:

١

Adan'i / and'i.

I do.

أدَنإِ / أندإِ.

Kaad'i.

I don't do.

كادإِ.

Dan'iya.

You (M) do.

دَنإِيه.

Kitd'iya.

You (M) don't do.

كِتدإِيه.

Dan'ii.

You (F) do.

دَنإي.

Kitd'ii.

You (F) did.

تِدإي.

Dan'i.

He does.

دَنإِ.

Kiid'i.

He did.

دإِ.

Dan'i.

She does.

دَنإِ.

Kidd'i.

She did.

تِدإِ.

4

Pres Pl:

٤

1

١

Nid'i / need'i.

We do.

نِدإِ / نێدإِ.

Kind'i.

We did.

كِندإِ.

Tid'ina.

You (Pl) do.

تِدإِنه.

Kidd'iina.

You (Pl) did.

كِدّإينه.

Id'iin.

They do.

إدإين.

Kiid'iin.

They did.

كٍيدإين.

5

Fut:

٥

Neg Fut:

Iid'a, ad'a andi.

I will do.

إيدأه, أدأه أندے.

Iid'a kaadi.

I will not do.

إيدأ كادے.

6

Past Cont:

٦

1

Neg Past Cont.:

١

Iid'i.

I was doing.

إيدإِ.

D'iyaab kaaki.

I didn't say.

دإِياب كاكے.

Tiid'iya.

You (M) were doing.

تٍيدإِيه.

D'iyaab kittaa.

You (M) didn't say.

دإِياب كِتّا.

Tiid'ii.

You (F) were doing.

تٍيدإي.

D'iyaat kittaayi.

You (F) didn't say.

دإِيات كِتّايے.

Iid'i.

He was doing.

إيدإِ.

D'iyaab kiiki.

He didn't say.

دإِياب كٍيكے.

Tiid'i.

She was doing.

تٍيدإِ.

D'iyaat kitti.

She didn't say.

دإِيات كِتّے.

Niid'i.

We were doing.

نٍيدإِ.

D'iyaab kinki.

We didn't say.

دإِياب كِنكے.

Tiid'iina.

You (Pl) were doing.

تٍيدإينه.

D'iyaab kitteena.

You (Pl) didn't say.

دإِياب كِتّێنه.

Iid'iin.

They were doing.

إيدإين.

D'iyaab kiikeen.

They didn't say.

دإِياب كٍيكێن.

7

Noun of Action:

٧

oo-d'uuy

the doing

ۆ- دُوي

<345>

There are more verbs of the same pattern. The list is not long, but one or two of these verbs are quite common. It should be noted that the patterns of diya 'to say' and d'iya 'to do' are similar to each other especially if the hamzah is disregarded.

Verbs like d'iya

n'iya

be down, go down (infrequent)

نإِيه

d'iya

be jealous (infrequent)

دإِيه

mhiya

be left, remain (less frequent)

مهِيه

t'iya

be similar (very frequent)

تإِيه

s'iya

be sure of, rely on (infrequent)

سإِيه

1 rib

1 Basic Stem

١ رِب

2 riib

2 Negative Stem

٢ رٍيب

Impv:

Neg Impv:

Riba!

Refuse (M)!

رِبه!

Baariiba!

Don't refuse (M)!

بارٍيبه!

Ribi!

Refuse (F)!

رِبے!

Biiriibi!

Don't refuse (F)!

بٍيرٍيبے!

Ribna!

Refuse (Pl)!

رِبنه!

Baariibna!

Don't refuse (Pl)!

بارٍيبنه!

1

Ptcp/Sub:

١

2

Neg Ptcp:

٢

ribaab

having refused (M)

رِباب

baariib

not refusing

بارٍيبَي

1

Past:

١

1

Neg Past:

١

Arib.

I refused.

أرِب.

Ribaab kaaki.

I didn't refuse.

رِباب كاكے.

Tiriba.

You (M) refused.

تِرِبه.

Ribaab kittaa.

You (M) didn't refuse.

رِباب كِتّا.

Tiribi.

You (F) refused.

تِرِبے.

Ribaat kittaayi.

You (F) didn't refuse.

رِبات كِتّايے.

Irib.

He refused.

إرِب.

Ribaab kiiki.

He didn't refuse.

رِباب كٍيكے.

Tirib.

She refused.

تِرِب.

Ribaat kitti.

She didn't refuse.

رِبات كِتّے.

Nirib.

We refused.

نِرِب.

Ribaab kinki.

We didn't refuse.

رِباب كِنكے.

Tiribna.

You (Pl) refused.

تِرِبنه.

Ribaab kitteena.

You (Pl) didn't refuse.

رِباب كِتّێنه.

Iribna.

They refused.

إرِبنه.

Ribaab kiikeen.

They didn't refuse.

رِباب كٍيكێن.

3

Pres Sg:

٣

1

Neg Pres:

١

Arriib.

I refuse.

أرٍّيب.

Kaarib.

I don't refuse.

كارِب.

Tirriiba.

You (M) refuse.

تِرٍّيبه.

Kitriba.

You (M) don't refuse.

كِترِبه.

Tirriibi.

You (F) refuse.

تِرٍّيبے.

Kitribi.

You (F) don't refuse.

كِترِبے.

Irriib.

He refuses.

إرٍّيب.

Kiirib.

He doesn't refuse

كٍيرِب.

Tirriib.

She refuses.

تِرٍّيب.

Kitrib.

She doesn't refuse.

كِترِب.

4

Pres Pl:

٤

1

Neg Pres Pl:

١

Neerib.

We refuse.

نێرِب.

Kinrib.

We don't refuse.

كِنرِب.

Teeribna.

You (Pl) refuse.

تێرِبنه.

Kitribna.

You (Pl) don't refuse.

كِترِبنه.

Eeribna.

They refuse.

ێرِبنه.

Kiiribna.

They don't refuse.

كٍيرِبنه.

5

Fut:

٥

Neg Fut:

Iirib andi.

I will refuse.

إيرِب أندے.

Iirib kaadi.

I won't refuse.

إيرِب كادے.

6

Past Cont:

٦

Neg Past Cont:

Iirib.

I was refusing.

إيرِب.

Ribaab kaaki.

I didn't refuse.

رِباب كاكے.

Tiiriba.

You (M) were refusing.

تٍيرِبه.

Ribaab kittaa.

You (M) didn't refuse.

رِباب كِتّا.

Tiiribi.

You (F) were refusing.

تٍيرِبے.

Ribaat kittaayi.

You (F) didn't refuse.

رِبات كِتّايے.

Iirib.

He was refusing.

إيرِب.

Ribaab kiiki.

He didn't refuse.

رِباب كٍيكے.

Tiirib.

She was refusing.

تٍيرِب.

Ribaat kitti.

She didn't refuse.

رِبات كِتّے.

Niirib.

We were refusing.

نٍيرِب.

Ribaab kinki.

We didn't refuse.

رِباب كِنكے.

Tiiribna.

You (Pl) were refusing.

تٍيرِبنه.

Ribaab kitteena.

You (Pl) didn't refuse.

رِباب كِتّێنه.

Iiribna.

They were refusing.

إيرِبنه.

Ribaab kiikeen.

They didn't refuse.

رِباب كٍيكێن.

7

Noun of Action:

٧

oo-raab

the refusing

ۆ- راب

<346>

There are more verbs of the same pattern CiC-.

Verbs like riba
Frequent verbs

riba

refuse (very frequent, verb of negation)

رِبه

sima

give a name

سِمه

gida

throw

قِده

tiba

fill

تِبه

difa

go away

دِفه

dira

kill

دِره

kwina

have in mind

كْوِنه

Less frequent verbs

bira

snatch

بِره

dina

guess

دِنه

disa

be small

دِسه

fifa

pour

فِفه

fika

threaten

فِكه

fisha

warm up (sth.)

فِشه

kwila

knock, hammer

كْوِله

kwita

push

كْوِته

liga

lift, comb

لِقه

liwa

burn (sth.)

لِوه

mida

test

مِده

mina

shave

مِنه

mira

prepare (sth.)

مِره

shiba

sharpen

شِبه

sida

weave

سِده

sikwa

pull, sip once

سِكْوه

wika

cut, scratch

وِكه

wina

grow up

وِنه

1 shibib

1 Basic Stem

١ شِبِب

2 shabiib

2 Negative Stem

٢ شَبٍيب

Impv:

Neg Impv:

Shibiba!

Look (M)!

شِبِبه!

Baashabiiba!

Don't look (M)!

باشَبٍيبه!

Shibibi!

Look (F)!

شِبِبے!

Biishabiibi!

Don't look (F)!

بٍيشَبٍيبے!

Shibibna!

Look (Pl)!

شِبِبنه!

Baashabiibna!

Don't look (Pl)!

باشَبٍيبنه!

1

Ptcp/Sub

١

2

Neg Ptcp:

٢

shibbaab

having looked (M)

شِبّاب

baashabiib

not looking

باشَبٍيبَي

1

Past:

١

1

Neg Past:

١

Ashbib.

I looked.

أشبِب.

Shibbaab kaaki.

I didn't look.

شِبّاب كاكے.

Tishbiba.

You (M) looked.

تِشبِبه.

Shibbaab kittaa.

You (M) didn't look.

شِبّاب كِتّا.

Tishbibi.

You (F) looked.

تِشبِبے.

Shibbaat kittaayi.

You (F) didn't look.

شِبّات كِتّايے.

Ishbib.

He looked.

إشبِب.

Shibbaab kiiki.

He didn't look.

شِبّاب كٍيكے.

Tishbib.

She looked.

تِشبِب.

Shibbaat kitti.

She didn't look.

شِبّات كِتّے.

Nishbib.

We looked.

نِشبِب.

Shibbaab kinki.

We didn't look.

شِبّاب كِنكے.

Tishbibna.

You (Pl) looked.

تِشبِبنه.

Shibbaab kitteena.

You (Pl) didn't look.

شِبّاب كِتّێنه.

Ishbibna.

They looked.

إشبِبنه.

Shibbaab kiikeen.

They didn't look.

شِبّاب كٍيكێن.

3

Pres Sg:

٣

1

Neg Pres:

١

Ashanbiib.

I look.

أشَنبٍيب.

Kaashbib.

I don't look.

كاشبِب.

Shanbiiba.

You (M) look.

شَنبٍيبه.

Kitshibiba / kishshbiba.

You (M) don't look.

كِتشِبِبه.

Shanbiibi.

You (F) look.

شَنبٍيبے.

Kitshbibi.

You (F) looked.

كِتشبِبے.

Shanbiib.

He looks.

شَنبٍيب.

Kiishbib.

He looked.

كٍيشبِب.

Shanbiib.

She looks.

شَنبٍيب.

Kitshbib.

She looked.

كِتشبِب.

4

Pres Pl:

٤

1

١

Nishabib.

We look.

نِشَبِب.

Kinshbib.

We looked.

كِنشبِب.

Tishabibna.

You (Pl) look.

تِشَبِبنه.

Kitshibibna.

You (Pl) looked.

كِتشِبِبنه.

Ishabibna.

They look.

إشَبِبنه.

Kiishbibna.

They looked.

كٍيشبِبنه.

5

Fut:

٥

5

Neg Fut:

٥

Iishbib andi.

I will look.

إيشبِب أندے.

Iishbib kaadi.

I won't look.

إيشبِب كادے.

6

Past Cont:

٦

1

Neg Past Cont:

١

Iishbib.

I was looking.

إيشبِب.

Shibbaab kaaki.

I didn't look.

شِبّاب كاكے.

Tiishbiba.

You (M) were looking.

تٍيشبِبه.

Shibbaab kittaa.

You (M) didn't look.

شِبّاب كِتّا.

Tiishbibi.

You (F) were looking.

تٍيشبِبے.

Shibbaat kittaayi.

You (F) didn't look.

شِبّات كِتّايے.

Iishbib.

He was looking.

إيشبِب.

Shibbaab kiiki.

He didn't look.

شِبّاب كٍيكے.

Tiishbib.

She was looking.

تٍيشبِب.

Shibbaat kitti.

She didn't look.

شِبّات كِتّے.

Niishbib.

We were looking.

نٍيشبِب.

Shibbaab kinki.

We didn't look.

شِبّاب كِنكے.

Tiishbibna.

You (Pl) were looking.

تٍيشبِبنه.

Shibbaab kitteena.

You (Pl) didn't look.

شِبّاب كِتّێنه.

Iishbibna.

They were looking.

إيشبِبنه.

Shibbaab kiikeen.

They didn't look.

شِبّاب كٍيكێن.

7

Noun of Action:

٧

oo-shbuub

the looking

ۆ- شبٌوب

<347>

There are more verbs of the same pattern. Note that the verbs of this pattern are transitive, even where the English gloss may not show this - such as kitima 'arrive at, reach'.

Verbs like shibiba
Frequent Verbs

kitima

arrive at, reach

كِتِمه

bisira

decide

بِسِره

shibiba

look (very frequent)

شِبِبه

fidiga

Open, untie

فِدِقه

bitika

separate, be between

بِتِكه

rigiga

stretch, drive

رِقِقه

diliba

trade

دِلِبه

kitiba

write

كِتِبه

Less Frequent Verbs

fitita

comb (less frequent)

فِتِته

firika

dig (less frequent)

فِرِكه

tiriba

divide (less frequent)

تِرِبه

fitira

eat breakfast (less frequent)

فِتِره

fitika

lift (less frequent)

فِتِكه

kirira

make a dam, veil (less frequent)

كِرِره

gwishisha

move (sth.) (less frequent)

قْوِشِشه

tikwikwa

prepare, produce (less frequent)

تِكْوِكْوه

shikidha

scratch (less frequent)

شِكِڈه

shigwidha

wash (less frequent)

شِقْوِڈه

Infrequent Verbs

fidina

hate, avoid

فِدِنه

mikira

advise

مِكِره

simima

anoint, smear

سِمِمه

ridida

be blunt

رِدِده

diwila

be close, approach

دِوِله

girima

be honored

قِرِمه

nikwisa

be lacking

نِكْوِسه

nifira

be sweet

نِفِره

shilika

become less

شِلِكه

finika

bite

فِنِكه

bidila

change

بِدِله

tilisa

cheat

تِلِسه

giriba

conquer

قِرِبه

misisa

die a natural death

مِسِسه

kiliba

fence in

كِلِبه

dibila

gather, collect

دِبِله

libiba

gird one's loins

لِبِبه

shifiga

hasten

شِفِقه

limida

learn, make used

لِمِده

silifa

lend, loan

سِلِفه

gwimida

lengthen

قْوِمِده

kwibira

cause to descend

كْوِبِره

ginifa

let kneel

قِنِفه

fitina

let quarrel, disturb

فِتِنه

gwisira

lie, tell lies

قْوِسِره

nigila

open, untie

نِقِله

shidhidha

peel

شِڈِڈه

widida

persist

وِدِده

siliba

rob

سِلِبه

khidima

serve (Ar)

خِدِمه

likika

squander

لِكِكه

kirima

subtract

كِرِمه

dirira

give supper, let eat

دِرِره

shitita

tear

شِتِته

1 miri(y)

1 Basic Stem

١ مِرے (ي)

2 marii(y)

2 Negative Stem

٢ مَرِي (ي)

Impv:

Neg Impv:

Miriya!

Find (M)!

مِرِيه!

Baamariiya!

Don't find (M)!

بامَرٍييه!

Miriyi!

Find (F)!

مِرِيے!

Biimariiyi!

Don't find (F)!

بٍيمَرٍييے!

Miriina!

Find (Pl)!

مِرٍينه!

Baamariina!

Don't find (Pl)!

بامَرٍينه!

1

Ptcp / Sub:

١

2

Neg Ptcp:

٢

miriyaab

having found (M)

مِرِياب

bamaari

not finding

بَمارِيَي

1

Past:

١

1

Neg Past:

١

Amiru.

I found.

أمِرُ.

Mir(i)yaab kaaki.

I didn't find.

مِرِياب كاكے.

Timiruwa.

You (M) found.

تِمِرُوه.

Miryaab kittaa.

You (M) didn't find.

مِرِياب كِتّا.

Timiruwi.

You (F) found.

تِمِرُوے.

Miryaat kittaayi.

You (F) didn't find.

مِرِيات كِتّايے.

Imiru.

He found.

إمِرُ.

Miryaab kiiki.

He didn't find.

مِرِياب كٍيكے.

Timiru.

She found.

تِمِرُ.

Miryaat kitti.

She didn't find.

مِرِيات كِتّے.

Nimiru.

We found.

نِمِرُ.

Miryaab kinki.

We didn't find.

مِرِياب كِنكے.

Timiruuna.

You (Pl) found.

تِمِرٌونه.

Miryaab kitteena.

You (Pl) didn't find.

مِرِياب كِتّێنه.

Imiruun.

They found.

إمِرٌون.

Miryaab kiikeen.

They didn't find.

مِرِياب كٍيكێن.

3

Pres Sg:

٣

1

Neg Pres:

١

Amarri.

I find.

أمَرّے.

Kaamiru.

I don't find.

كامِرُ.

Marriya.

You (M) find.

مَرِّيه.

Kitmiriya.

You (M) don't find.

كِتمِرِيه.

Marrii.

You (F) find.

مَرِّي.

Kitmiruwi / -iyi.

You (F) don't find.

كِتمِرُوے /-إيے.

Marri.

He finds.

مَرّے.

Kiimiru / -i.

He doesn't find

كٍيمِرُ /-إ.

Marri.

She finds.

مَرّے.

Kitmiru.

She doesn't find

كِتمِرُ.

4

Pres Pl:

٤

1

Neg Pres Pl:

١

Nimeer.

We find.

نِمێر.

Kinmiru.

We don't find

كِنمِرُ.

Timeerna.

You (Pl) find.

تِمێرنه.

Kitmiruuna.

You (Pl) don't find

كِتمِرٌونه.

Imeerna.

They find.

إمێرنه.

Kiimiruun.

They don't find

كٍيمِرٌون.

5

Fut:

٥

5

Neg Fut:

٥

Imaar andi.

I will find.

إمار أندے.

Imaar kaadi.

I won't find.

إمار كادے.

6

Past Cont:

٦

1

Neg Past Cont:

١

Imiir.

I was finding.

إمٍير.

Miriyaab kaaki.

I didn't find.

مِرِياب كاكے.

Timiira.

You (M) were finding.

تِمٍيره.

Miriyaab kittaa.

You (M) didn't find.

مِرِياب كِتّا.

Timiiri.

You (F) were finding.

تِمٍيرے.

Miriyaat kittaayi.

You (F) didn't find.

مِرِيات كِتّايے.

Imiir.

He was finding.

إمٍير.

Miriyaab kiiki.

He didn't find.

مِرِياب كٍيكے.

Timiir.

She was finding.

تِمٍير.

Miriyaat kitti.

She didn't find.

مِرِيات كِتّے.

Nimiir.

We were finding.

نِمٍير.

Miriyaab kinki.

We didn't find.

مِرِياب كِنكے.

Timiirna.

You (Pl) were finding.

تِمٍيرنه.

Miriyaab kitteena.

You (Pl) didn't find.

مِرِياب كِتّێنه.

Imiirna.

They were finding.

إمٍيرنه.

Miriyaab kiikeen.

They didn't find.

مِرِياب كٍيكێن.

7

Noun of Action:

٧

oo-mraay, oo-mruuy

the finding

ۆ- مراي

<348>

There are more verbs of the same pattern. These verbs are also transitive.

Frequent Verbs

rikwiya

be afraid

رِكْوِيه

sigiya

be far

سِقِيه

tikwiya

cook

تِكْوِيه

dhigwiya

count once

ڈِقْوِيه

miriya

find (very frequent)

مِرِيه

firiya

give birth

فِرِيه

digiya

return (sth.)

دِقِيه

sikwiya

run after

سِكْوِيه

siniya

wait, stay

سِنِيه

hamiya

be bitter, blame

هَمِيه

nikwiyi

be pregnant

نِكْوِيے

aliya

become dear

ألِيه

nifiya

blow

نِفِيه

humiya

cover (less frequent)

هُمِيه

shifiya

drink milk

شِفِيه

sikw'iya

feel shy

سِكْوإِيه

nisiya

go west

نِسِيه

kwiriya

graze

كْوِرِيه

ribiya

load

رِبِيه

fidhiya

mix

فِڈِيه

kwisiya

pay debts (less frequent)

كْوِسِيه

adiya

prick

أدِيه

kiriya

rent

كِرِيه

kwimiya

roast bake

كْوِمِيه

hagiya

spend hot season

هَقِيه

dhimiya

stink

ڈِمِيه

dibiya

take care

دِبِيه

1 hariw

1 Basic Stem

١ هَرِو

2 hariiw

2 Negative Stem

٢ هَرٍيو

Impv:

Neg Impv:

Hariwa!

Look (M) for (sth.)!

هَرِوه!

Bahariiwa!

Don't look (M) for (sth.)!

بَهَرٍيوه!

Hariwi!

Look (F) for (sth.)!

هَرِوے!

Bihariiwi!

Don't look (F) for (sth.)!

بِهَرٍيوے!

Hariwna!

Look (Pl) for (sth.)!

هَرِونه!

Bahariiwna!

Don't look (Pl) for (sth.)!

بَهَرٍيونه!

1

Ptcp / Sub:

١

2

Neg Ptcp:

٢

harwaab

having looked for (M) (sth.)

هَرواب

bahariiw

not looking for (sth.)

بَهَرٍيوَي

1

Past:

١

1

Neg Past:

١

Ahariw.

I looked for (sth.).

أهَرِو.

Harwaab kaaki.

I didn't look for (sth.).

هَرواب كاكے.

Tihariwa.

You (M) looked for (sth.).

تِهَرِوه.

Harwaab kittaa.

You (M) didn't look for (sth.).

هَرواب كِتّا.

Tihariwi.

You (F) looked for (sth.).

تِهَرِوے.

Harwaat kittaayi.

You (F) didn't look for (sth.).

هَروات كِتّايے.

Ihariw.

He looked for (sth.).

إهَرِو.

Harwaab kiiki.

He didn't look for (sth.).

هَرواب كٍيكے.

Tihariw.

She looked for (sth.).

تِهَرِو.

Harwaat kitti.

She didn't look for (sth.).

هَروات كِتّے.

Nihariw.

We looked for (sth.).

نِهَرِو.

Harwaab kinki.

We didn't look for (sth.).

هَرواب كِنكے.

Tihariwna.

You (Pl) looked for (sth.).

تِهَرِونه.

Harwaab kitteena.

You (Pl) didn't look for (sth.).

هَرواب كِتّێنه.

Ihariwna.

They looked for (sth.).

إهَرِونه.

Harwaab kiikeen.

They didn't look for (sth.).

هَرواب كٍيكێن.

3

Pres Sg:

٣

1

Neg Pres:

١

Aharriiw.

I look for (sth.).

أهَرٍّيو.

Kahariw.

I don't look for (sth.).

كَهَرِو.

Harriiwa.

You (M) look for (sth.).

هَرٍّيوه.

Kitehariwa.

You (M) don't look for (sth.).

كِتهَرِوه.

Harriiwi.

You (F) look for (sth.).

هَرٍّيوے.

Kithariwi.

You (F) don't look for (sth.).

كِٹَرِوے.

Harriiw.

He looks for (sth.).

هَرٍّيو.

Kihariw.

He doesn't look for (sth.).

كِهَرِو.

Harriiw.

She looks for (sth.).

هَرٍّيو.

Kithariw.

She doesn't look for (sth.).

كِٹَرِو.

4

Pres Pl:

٤

1

Neg Pres Pl:

١

Nihariw.

We look for (sth.).

نِهَرِو.

Kinhariw.

We don't look for (sth.).

كِنهَرِو.

Tihariwna.

You (Pl) look for (sth.).

تِهَرِونه.

Kithariwna.

You (Pl) don't look for (sth.).

كِٹَرِونه.

Ihariwna.

They look for (sth.).

إهَرِونه.

Kihariwna.

They don't look for (sth.).

كِهَرِونه.

5

Fut:

٥

5

Neg Fut:

٥

Ihiriw andi.

I will look for (sth.).

إهِرِو أندے.

Ihiriw kaadi.

I won't look for (sth.).

إهِرِو كادے.

6

Past Cont:

٦

Neg Past Cont:

Ihiriw.

I was looking for (sth.).

إهِرِو.

Harwaab kaaki.

I didn't look for (sth.).

هَرواب كاكے.

Tihiriwa.

You (M) were looking for (sth.).

تِهِرِوه.

Harwaab kittaa.

You (M) didn't look for (sth.).

هَرواب كِتّا.

Tihiriwi.

You (F) were looking for (sth.).

تِهِرِوے.

Harwaat kittaayi.

You (F) didn't look for (sth.).

هَروات كِتّايے.

Ihiriw.

He was looking for (sth.).

إهِرِو.

Harwaab kiiki.

He didn't look for (sth.).

هَرواب كٍيكے.

Tihiriw.

She was looking for (sth.).

تِهِرِو.

Harwaat kitti.

She didn't look for (sth.).

هَروات كِتّے.

Nihiriw.

We were looking for (sth.).

نِهِرِو.

Harwaab kinki.

We didn't look for (sth.).

هَرواب كِنكے.

Tihiriwna.

You (Pl) were looking for (sth.).

تِهِرِونه.

Harwaab kitteena.

You (Pl) didn't look for (sth.).

هَرواب كِتّێنه.

Ihiriwna.

They were looking for (sth.).

إهِرِونه.

Harwaab kiikeen.

They didn't look for (sth.).

هَرواب كٍيكێن.

7

Noun of Action:

٧

w-haruuw

the looking for (sth.)

و- هَرٌوو

<349>

There are more verbs of the same pattern.

Verbs like hariwa

hayisa

be better

هَيِسه

hakwira

close, tie

هَكْوِره

adhidha

hobble, divide

أڈِڈه

abika

hold, seize

أبِكه

agira

return (sth.)

أقِره

hawida

spend evening

هَوِده

hamida

thank, praise

هَمِده

hasiba

think

هَسِبه

hariwa

try to find (very frequent)

هَرِوه

hagita

wait

هَقِته

ariwa

align oneself, fit in

أرِوه

asiga

be peaceful

أسِقه

hamira

be poor, be meager

هَمِره

hasira

be sorry

هَسِره

akira

be strong

أكِره

haliga

bend

هَلِقه

agwira

bend (sth.)

أقْوِره

atima

close, seal

أتِمه

adima

converse

أدِمه

hakifa

embrace

هَكِفه

hatita

erase

هَتِته

aliga

feed

ألِقه

hakisa

limp

هَكِسه

adila

make peace (Ar)

أدِله

hayisha

make pottery

هَيِشه

ashisha

meet, receive

أشِشه

hagila

miss, leave, fail

هَقِله

awila

move westward

أوِله

adhidha

peel once (e.g. a banana)

أڈِڈه

ayikwa

pick

أيِكْوه

hayida

sew once

هَيِده

harida

slaughter

هَرِده

afidha

sneeze

أفِڈه

1 naw

1 Basic Stem

١ نَو

2 naaw

2 Negative Stem

٢ ناو

Impv:

Neg Impv:

Nawa!

Fail (M)!

نَوه!

Baanaawa!

Don't fail (M)!

باناوه!

Nawi!

Fail (F)!

نَوے!

Biinaawi!

Don't fail (F)!

بٍيناوے!

Nawna!

Fail (Pl)!

نَونه!

Baanaawna!

Don't fail (Pl)!

باناونه!

1

Ptcp / Sub:

١

2

Neg Ptcp:

٢

nawaab

having failed (M)

نَواب

banaaway

not having failed

بَناوَي

1

Past:

١

1

Neg Past:

١

Anaw.

I failed.

أنَو.

Nawaab kaaki.

I didn't fail.

نَواب كاكے.

Tinawa.

You (M) failed.

تِنَوه.

Nawaab kittaa.

You (M) didn't fail.

نَواب كِتّا.

Tinawi.

You (F) failed.

تِنَوے.

Nawaat kittaayi.

You (F) didn't fail.

نَوات كِتّايے.

Inaw.

He failed.

إنَو.

Nawaab kiiki.

He didn't fail.

نَواب كٍيكے.

Tinaw.

She failed.

تِنَو.

Nawaat kitti.

She didn't fail.

نَوات كِتّے.

Ninaw.

We failed.

نِنَو.

Nawaab kinki.

We didn't fail.

نَواب كِنكے.

Tinawna.

You (Pl) failed.

تِنَونه.

Nawaab kitteena.

You (Pl) didn't fail.

نَواب كِتّێنه.

Inawna.

They failed.

إنَونه.

Nawaab kiikeen.

They didn't fail.

نَواب كٍيكێن.

3

Pres Sg:

٣

1

Neg Pres:

١

Eetniiw / eenawi.

I fail.

ێتنٍيو / ێنَوے.

Kaanaw.

I don't fail.

كانَو.

Teetniiwa.

You (M) fail.

تێتنٍيوه.

Kitnawa.

You (M) don't fail.

كِتنَوه.

Teetniiwi.

You (F) fail.

تێتنٍيوے.

Kitnawi.

You (F) don't fail.

كِتنَوے.

Eetniiw.

He fails.

ێتنٍيو.

Kiinaw.

He doesn't fail.

كٍينَو.

Teetniiwi.

She fails.

تێتنٍيوے.

Kitnaw.

She doesn't fail.

كِتنَو.

4

Pres Pl:

٤

1

Neg Pres Pl:

١

Neetniiw / neenawi.

We fail.

نێتنٍيو / نێنَوے.

Kinnaw.

We don't fail.

كِنَّو.

Teetniiwna.

You (Pl) fail.

تێتنٍيونه.

Kitnawna.

You (Pl) don't fail.

كِتنَونه.

Eetniiwna.

They fail.

ێتنٍيونه.

Kiinawna.

They don't fail.

كٍينَونه.

5

Fut:

٥

5

Neg Fut:

٥

Iitnaw / iinaw andi.

I will fail.

إيتنَو / إينَو أندے.

Iitnaw kaadi.

I won't fail.

إيتنَو كادے.

6

Past Cont:

٦

1

Neg Past Cont:

١

Iitnaw / iitniw / iinawi.

I was failing.

إيتنِو / إينَوے.

Nawaab kaaki.

I didn't fail.

نَواب كاكے.

Tiitnawa / tiitniwa.

You (M) were failing.

تٍيتنِوه.

Nawaab kittaa.

You (M) didn't fail.

نَواب كِتّا.

Tiitnawi.

You (F) were failing.

تٍيتنِوے.

Nawaat kittaayi.

You (F) didn't fail.

نَوات كِتّايے.

Iitnaw.

He was failing.

إيتنِو.

Nawaab kiiki.

He didn't fail.

نَواب كٍيكے.

Tiitnaw.

She was failing.

تٍيتنِو.

Nawaat kitti.

She didn't fail.

نَوات كِتّے.

Niitnaw / niinawi.

We were failing.

نٍيتنِو / نٍينَوے.

Nawaab kinki.

We didn't fail.

نَواب كِنكے.

Tiitniwna.

You (Pl) were failing.

تٍيتنِونه.

Nawaab kitteena.

You (Pl) didn't fail.

نَواب كِتّێنه.

Iitniwna.

They were failing.

إيتنِونه.

Nawaab kiikeen.

They didn't fail.

نَواب كٍيكێن.

7

Noun of Action:

٧

oo-naaw

the failing

ۆ- ناو

<350>

There are more verbs of the same pattern.

<351>

Note that verbs of this pattern are intransitive.

rama

accompany (frequent)

رَمه

maga

be bad (frequent)

مَقه

rhasa

be cheap (infrequent)

رهَسه

nhasa

be clean (infrequent)

نهَسه

kata

be clear, be light (infrequent)

كَته

taba

be filled (infrequent)

تَبه

kasha

be mean (infrequent)

كَشه

nakwa

be smooth, be lazy (infrequent)

نَكْوه

nhawa

be thin (infrequent)

نهَوه

lawa

burn (Intr) (infrequent)

لَوه

laga

dance (infrequent)

لَقه

gwala

exceed (infrequent)

قْوَله

mara

get ready (frequent)

مَره

tara

make a detour, avoid (sth.) (infrequent)

تَره

nawa

miss (frequent)

نَوه

gama

not know, ignore (frequent)

قَمه

shaba

put on shoes (Intr) (infrequent)

شَبه

ama

ride (infrequent)

أمه

shata

slip, glide, fall (infrequent)

شَته

shagwa

start quarrel (infrequent)

شَقْوه

gafa

stumble (infrequent)

قَفه

b'asa

turn sides (infrequent)

بأَسه

gw'ada

watch, guard oneself (infrequent)

قْوأَده

bisa

bury, hide (Ar) (infrequent)

بِسه

bifa

swim (infrequent)

بِفه

fisha

warm up (Intr) (infrequent)

فِشه

wina

grow up (infrequent)

وِنه

<352>

Except for the present singular which has -n- (rather than -t-), the following verbs have the same pattern.

Verbs similar to nawa

dhhana

become alive (infrequent)

ڈهَنه

sh'isha (Gash dial.), sh'usha

cough (infrequent)

شإِشه, شءُشه

lhasa

lick (infrequent)

لهَسه

kehana

love (infrequent)

كهَنه

gwhama

sip (infrequent)

قْوهَمه

gwhara

steal (infrequent)

قْوهَره

b'ara

wake up, get up oneself (frequent)

بأَره

gw'ada

watch, guard (infrequent)

قْوأَده

1 ba(y)

1 Basic Stem

١ به (ي)

2 baa(y)

2 Negative Stem

٢ با (ي)

Impv:

Neg Impv:

Baya!

Go to (M)!

بَيه!

Baabaaya!

Don't go to (M) !

بابايه!

Bayi!

Go to (F)!

بَيے!

Biibaayi!

Don't go to (F)!

بٍيبايے!

Beena!

Go to (Pl)!

بێنه!

Baabeena!

Don't go to (Pl) !

بابێنه!

1

Ptcp / Sub:

١

2

Neg Ptcp:

٢

bayaab, abaay

having gone to (M)

بَياب, أباي

baabaay

not having gone to (M)

بابايَي

1

Past:

١

1

Neg Past:

١

Abi.

I went to.

أبے.

Bayaab kaaki.

I didn't go to.

بَياب كاكے.

Tibaya.

You (M) went to.

تِبَيه.

Bayaab kittaa.

You (M) didn't go to.

بَياب كِتّا.

Tibayi.

You (F) went to.

تِبَيے.

Bayaat kittaayi.

You (F) didn't go to.

بَيات كِتّايے.

Ibi.

He went to.

إبے.

Bayaab kiiki.

He didn't go to.

بَياب كٍيكے.

Tibi.

She went to.

تِبے.

Bayaat kitti.

She didn't go to.

بَيات كِتّے.

Nibi.

We went to.

نِبے.

Bayaab kinki.

We didn't go to.

بَياب كِنكے.

Tibeena.

You (Pl) went to.

تِبێنه.

Bayaab kitteena.

You (Pl) didn't go to.

بَياب كِتّێنه.

Ibeen.

They went to.

إبێن.

Bayaab kiikeen.

They didn't go to.

بَياب كٍيكێن.

3

Pres Sg:

٣

1

Neg Pres:

١

Eebi.

I go to.

ێبے.

Kaabi.

I don't go to.

كابے.

Teebiya.

You (M) go to.

تێبِيه.

Kitbaya.

You (M) don't go to.

كِتبَيه.

Teebi.

You (F) go to.

تێبے.

Kitbayi.

You (F) don't go to.

كِتبَيے.

Eebi.

He goes to.

ێبے.

Kiibi.

He doesn't go to.

كٍيبے.

Teebi.

She goes to.

تێبے.

Kitbi.

She doesn't go to.

كِتبے.

4

Pres Pl:

٤

1

Neg Pres Pl:

١

Neebi.

We go to.

نێبے.

Kinbi.

We don't go to.

كِنبے.

Teebiina.

You (Pl) go to.

تێبٍينه.

Kitbeena.

You (Pl) don't go to.

كِتبێنه.

Eebiin.

They go to.

ێبٍين.

Kiibeen.

They don't go to.

كٍيبێن.

5

Fut:

٥

5

Neg Fut:

٥

Iiba andi.

I will go to.

إيبه أندے.

Iiba kaadi.

I won't go.

إيبه كادے.

6

Past Cont:

٦

1

Neg Past Cont:

١

Iibi.

I was going to.

إيبے.

Bayaab kaaki.

I didn't go to.

بَياب كاكے.

Tiibiya.

You (M) were going to.

تٍيبِيه.

Bayaab kittaa.

You (M) didn't go to.

بَياب كِتّا.

Tiibiyi.

You (F) were going to.

تٍيبِيے.

Bayaat kittaayi.

You (F) didn't go to.

بَيات كِتّايے.

Iibi.

He was going to.

إيبے.

Bayaab kiiki.

He didn't go to.

بَياب كٍيكے.

Tiibi.

She was going to.

تٍيبے.

Bayaat kitti.

She didn't go to.

بَيات كِتّے.

Niibi.

We were going to.

نٍيبے.

Bayaab kinki.

We didn't go to.

بَياب كِنكے.

Tiibiina.

You (Pl) were going to.

تٍيبٍينه.

Bayaab kitteena.

You (Pl) didn't go to.

بَياب كِتّێنه.

Iibiin.

They were going to.

إيبٍين.

Bayaab kiikeen.

They didn't go to.

بَياب كٍيكێن.

7

Noun of Action:

٧

i-miibi / i-mabay

the going (to)

إ- مٍيبے / إ-مَبَي

<353>

So the pattern of baya 'to go to' is similar to that of nawa, except that there is no -t- in the present tense.

<354>

The very frequent verb faya 'to be' is not used in the past, perfect or the negative paradigms. Otherwise it follows the pattern of baya.

<355>

The very frequent verb kana 'to know' has two senses; when used in the sense 'to get to know', it uses the same paradigm as baya. (For the other sense, see the special paradigm of kana.)

<356>

There are more verbs of the same pattern, except for different root vowels.

faya

be (very frequent)

فَيه

shoofa

be light, easy (infrequent)

شۆفه

baash'a, b'aasha

come among (infrequent)

باشأه

weera

do, make (less frequent)

وێره

gwooya

fail (infrequent)

قْوۆيه

foora

flee, escape (infrequent)

فۆره

kwara

harvest, pick (infrequent)

كْوَره

sara

keep awake (infrequent)

سَره

kana

know (infrequent)

كَنه

sala

sharpen (infrequent)

سَله

1 fiyak

1 Basic Stem

١ فِيَك

2 fiyaak

2 Negative Stem

٢ فِياك

Impv:

Neg Impv:

Fiyaka!

Carry (M)!

فِيَكه!

Baafiyaaka!

Don't carry (M)!

بافِياكه!

Fiyaki!

Carry (F)!

فِيَكے!

Biifiyaaki!

Don't carry (F)!

بٍيفِياكے!

Fiyakna!

Carry (Pl)!

فِيَكنه!

Baafiyaakna!

Don't carry (Pl)!

بافِياكنه!

1

Ptcp / Sub:

١

2

Neg Ptcp:

٢

fayaak

having carried (M)

فَياك

baafiyaak

not carrying

بافِياكَي

1

Past:

١

1

Neg Past:

١

Afiyak.

I carried.

أفِيَك.

Fayaak kaaki.

I didn't carry

فَياك كاكے.

Tifiyaka.

You (M) carried.

تِفِيَكه.

Fayaak kittaa.

You (M) didn't carry

فَياكت كِتّا.

Tifiyaki.

You (F) carried.

تِفِيَكے.

Fayaakt kittaayi.

You (F) didn't carry

فَياكت كِتّايے.

Ifiyak.

He carried.

إفِيَك.

Fayaak kiiki.

He didn't carry

فَياك كٍيكے.

Tifiyak.

She carried.

تِفِيَك.

Fayaakt kitti.

She didn't carry

فَياكت كِتّے.

Nifiyak.

We carried.

نِفِيَك.

Fayaak kinki.

We didn't carry

فَياك كِنكے.

Tifiyakna.

You (Pl) carried.

تِفِيَكنه.

Fayaak kitteena.

You (Pl) didn't carry

فَياك كِتّێنه.

Ifiyakna.

They carried.

إفِيَكنه.

Fayaak kiikeen.

They didn't carry

فَياك كٍيكێن.

3

Pres Sg:

٣

1

Neg Pres:

١

Atfayiik.

I carry.

أتفَيٍيك.

Kaafiyak.

I don't carry.

كافِيَك.

Titfayiika.

You (M) carry.

تِتفَيٍيكه.

Kitfiyaka.

You (M) don't carry.

كِتفِيَكه.

Titfayiiki.

You (F) carry.

تِتفَيٍيكے.

Kitfiyaki.

You (F) don't carry.

كِتفِيَكے.

Itfayiik.

He carries.

إتفَيٍيك.

Kiifiyak.

He doesn't carry.

كٍيفِيَك.

Titfayiik.

She carries.

تِتفَيٍيك.

Kitfiyak.

She doesn't carry.

كِتفِيَك.

4

Pres Pl:

٤

1

Neg Pres Pl:

١

Nitfayiik.

We carry.

نِتفَيٍيك.

Kinfiyak.

We don't carry.

كِنفِيَك.

Titfayiikna.

You (Pl) carry.

تِتفَيٍيكنه.

Kitfiyakna.

You (Pl) don't carry.

كِتفِيَكنه.

Itfayiikna.

They carry.

إتفَيٍيكنه.

Kiifiyakna.

They don't carry.

كٍيفِيَكنه.

5

Fut:

٥

5

Neg Fut:

٥

Itfiyak andi.

I will carry.

إتفِيَك أندے.

Itfiyak kaadi.

I won't carry.

إتفِيَك كادے.

6

Past Cont:

٦

1

Neg Past Cont:

١

Itfiyik.

I was carrying.

إتفِيِك.

Fayaak kaaki.

I didn't carry.

فَياك كاكے.

Titfiyika.

You (M) were carrying.

تِتفِيِكه.

Fayaak kittaa.

You (M) didn't carry.

فَياكت كِتّا.

Titfiyiki.

You (F) were carrying.

تِتفِيِكے.

Fayaakt kittaayi.

You (F) didn't carry.

فَياكت كِتّايے.

Itfiyik.

He was carrying.

إتفِيِك.

Fayaak kiiki.

He didn't carry.

فَياك كٍيكے.

Titfiyik.

She was carrying.

تِتفِيِك.

Fayaakt kitti.

She didn't carry.

فَياكت كِتّے.

Nitfiyik.

We were carrying.

نِتفِيِك.

Fayaak kinki.

We didn't carry.

فَياك كِنكے.

Titfiyikna.

You (Pl) were carrying.

تِتفِيِكنه.

Fayaak kitteena.

You (Pl) didn't carry.

فَياك كِتّێنه.

Itfiyikna.

They were carrying.

إتفِيِكنه.

Fayaak kiikeen.

They didn't carry.

فَياك كٍيكێن.

7

Noun of Action:

٧

tu-mifyeek, tu-mifiyeek

the carrying

تُ-مِفيێك

<357>

There are more verbs of the same pattern. Note that these verbs are intransitive or passive.

winana

be angry (infrequent)

وِنَنه

shilaka

be few (infrequent)

شِلَكه

bishakwa

be hot, diligent (infrequent) (see below)

بِشَكْوه

haragwa

be hungry (frequent)

هَرَقْوه

gwimada

be long (infrequent)

قْوِمَده

sirara

be long (infrequent)

سِرَره

bishakwa

be ripe, cooked (infrequent)

بِشَكْوه

nikasha

be short (infrequent)

نِكَشه

kitaba

be written, be registered (infrequent)

كِتَبه

silafa

borrow (infrequent)

سِلَفه

fiyaka

carry, take care of, be loaded (frequent)

فِيَكه

sikata

choke (Intr) (infrequent)

سِكَته

fidhadha

confess (infrequent)

فِڈَڈه

digwagwa

crouch (less frequent)

دِقْوَقْوه

sibara

flee (infrequent)

سِبَره

libaba

gird one's loins (infrequent)

لِبَبه

gilada

give a promise (infrequent)

قِلَده

kwibara

go down (infrequent)

كْوِبَره

shifaga

hasten (infrequent)

شِفَقه

tilala

jump (infrequent)

تِلَله

ginafa

kneel (Intr) (infrequent)

قِنَفه

gwishasha

move (Intr) (infrequent)

قْوِشَشه

rigasa

play (infrequent)

رِقَسه

shikwana

smell pleasant (infrequent)

شِكْوَنه

dirara

sup, eat supper (infrequent)

دِرَره

libasa

travel by night (infrequent)

لِبَسه

shigwadha

wash oneself (infrequent)

شِقْوَڈه

<358>

There are verbs which follow the pattern of fiyaka 'carry', except that they start with h or hamzah. So the prefixes have to be adjusted in the same way as with hariwa 'want'.

<359>

There are more verbs of the same pattern.

Verbs similar to fiyaka

harara

be empty (infrequent)

هَرَره

adara

be red (infrequent)

أدَره

agwara

bend oneself (infrequent)

أقْوَره

hasara

lose (infrequent)

هَسَره

agara

return (Intr) (infrequent)

أقَره

agaga

sit, squat (infrequent)

أقَقه

1 fir'(a)

1 Basic Stem

١ فِر (أ)

2 far'(a)

2 Negative Stem

٢ فَر (أ)

Impv:

Neg Impv:

Fir'a, fira'a!

Go out (M)!

فِرأه!

Baafira'a!

Don't go out (M)!

بافِرَأه!

Fir'i, fira'i!

Go out (F)!

فِرإِ!

Biifira'i!

Don't go out (F)!

بٍيفِرَإِ!

Fir'ana!

Go out (Pl)!

فِرأَنه!

Baafir'ana!

Don't go out (Pl)!

بافِرأَنه!

1

Ptcp / Sub

١

2

Neg Ptcp:

٢

fir'aab

having gone out (M)

فِرآب

baafar'a

not going out

بافَرإِيَي

1

Past:

١

1

Neg Past:

١

Afir'a.

I went out.

أفِرأه.

Far'a kaaki.

I didn't go out.

فَرأه كاكے.

Tifir'aya.

You (M) went out.

تِفِرأَيه.

Far'a kittaa.

You (M) didn't go out.

فَرأه كِتّا.

Tifir'ayi.

You (F) went out.

تِفِرأَيے.

Far'at kittaayi.

You (F) didn't go out.

فَرأَت كِتّايے.

Ifir'a.

He went out.

إفِرأه.

Far'a kiiki.

He didn't go out.

فَرأه كٍيكے.

Tifir'a.

She went out.

تِفِرأه.

Far'at kitti.

She didn't go out.

فَرأَت كِتّے.

Nifir'a.

We went out.

نِفِرأه.

Far'a kinki.

We didn't go out.

فَرأه كِنكے.

Tifir'ana.

You (Pl) went out.

تِفِرأَنه.

Far'a kitteena.

You (Pl) didn't go out.

فَرأه كِتّێنه.

Ifir'ana.

They went out.

إفِرأَنه.

Far'a kiikeen.

They didn't go out.

فَرأه كٍيكێن.

3

Pres Sg:

٣

1

Neg Pres:

١

Atfar'i.

I go out.

أتفَرإِ.

Kaafir'a.

I don't go out.

كافِرأه.

Titfari'a.

You (M) go out.

تِتفَرِأه.

Kitfira'a.

You (M) don't go out.

كِتفِرَأه.

Titfari'i.

You (F) go out.

تِتفَرِإِ.

Kitfira'i.

You (F) don't go out.

كِتفِرَإِ.

Itfar'i.

He goes out.

إتفَرإِ.

Kiifir'a.

He doesn't go out.

كٍيفِرأه.

Titfar'i.

She goes out.

تِتفَرإِ.

Kitfir'a.

She doesn't go out.

كِتفِرأه.

4

Pres Pl:

٤

1

Neg Pres Pl:

١

Nitfar'i.

We go out.

نِتفَرإِ.

Kinfir'a.

We don't go out.

كِنفِرأه.

Titfar'ina.

You (Pl) go out.

تِتفَرإِنه.

Kitfir'ana.

You (Pl) don't go out.

كِتفِرأَنه.

Itfar'ina.

They go out.

إتفَرإِنه.

Kiifir'ana.

They don't go out.

كٍيفِرأَنه.

5

Fut:

٥

5

Neg Fut:

٥

Itfir'a andi.

I will go out.

إتفِرأه أندے.

Itfir'a kaadi.

I won't go out.

إتفِرأه كادے.

1

Past Cont:

١

1

Neg Past Cont:

١

Itfir'a.

I was going out.

إتفِرأه.

Far'a kaaki.

I didn't go out.

فَرأه كاكے.

Titfir'a.

You (M) were going out.

تِتفِرأه.

Far'a kittaa.

You (M) didn't go out.

فَرأه كِتّا.

Titfir'i.

You (F) were going out.

تِتفِرإِ.

Far'at kittaayi.

You (F) didn't go out.

فَرأَت كِتّايے.

Itfir'i.

He was going out.

إتفِرإِ.

Far'a kiiki.

He didn't go out.

فَرأه كٍيكے.

Titfir'i.

She was going out.

تِتفِرإِ.

Far'at kitti.

She didn't go out.

فَرأَت كِتّے.

Nitfir'a.

We were going out.

نِتفِرأه.

Far'a kinki.

We didn't go out.

فَرأه كِنكے.

Titfir'ana.

You (Pl) were going out.

تِتفِرأَنه.

Far'a kitteena.

You (Pl) didn't go out.

فَرأه كِتّێنه.

Itfir'ana.

They were going out.

إتفِرأَنه.

Far'a kiikeen.

They didn't go out.

فَرأه كٍيكێن.

7

Noun of Action:

٧

tu-mifir'ooy

the going out

تُ-مِفِرؤۆي

<360>

There are more verbs of the same pattern.

niseha, nisaha

advise (Ar) (infrequent)

نِسهه, نِسَهه

tilha

be awkward (infrequent)

تِلهه

dilha

be strong, healthy (infrequent)

دِلهه

yidh'a

be wet (infrequent)

يِڈأه

bideha

bear witness (infrequent)

بِدهه

kit'a

break (frequent)

كِتأه

nif'a

dust, brush (infrequent)

نِفأه

sikw'a

feel shy (infrequent)

سِكْوأه

fir'a, fira'a

get out (sth.) (very frequent)

فِرأه, فِرَأه

ginha

get news, receive (infrequent)

قِنهه

milha

lead (infrequent)

مِلهه

fiteha

open (Ar) (infrequent)

فِتهه

kwit'a

swallow (infrequent)

كْوِتأه

kwibha

swim (infrequent)

كْوِبهه

nib'a

warm (infrequent)

نِبأه

<361>

Note that the pronunciation of these verbs differs in different dialect areas: E.g. in the Gash area, the a would be pronounced after the glottal stop or 'h', and in the Atman area, the pronunciation is as written here above i.e. with the a before the glottal stop or 'h'.

<362>

A: the teacher, B: the pupils

#1

A: Tumadrasa hankwiirhoob,

tu-madrasa Zero-hankwiir-hoob

A: When the school is closed,

ArtSgF-school ImpfSg3MPf-tie-Adv+when

#2

naan daatiniya?

naan daa-tiniya

What do you (M) do?

what do-ImpfSg2M

#3

B: Reewu eeshkwi.

reew-u Zero-eeshkwi

B: I look after my cattle.

cattle-PossSg1 ImpfSg3MPf-look.after

#4

A: Reewook teeshkwiya?

reew-ook t-eeshkwi-ya

A: Do you (M) look after your cattle?

cattle-PossSg2 ImpfSg2MPf-look.after-ImpfSg2M

#5

Baruuk shaakwanaawwa?

baruuk shaakwanaa-wa

Are you (M) a herdsman?

Sg2M cowherd-IdSg2M

#6

B: Ani shaakwanaabu.

ani shaakwanaab-u

B: I am a herdsman.

Sg1 cowherd-IdSg13M

#7

A: Tumadrasa hankwiirhoob,

tu-madrasa Zero-hankwiir-hoob

A: When the school is closed,

ArtSgF-school ImpfSg3MPf-tie-Adv+when

#8

naan daateena?

naan daa-teena

What do you (Pl) do?

what do-ImpfPl2

#9

B: Reewoon neeshkwi.

reew-oon n-eeshkwi

B: We look after our cattle.

cattle-PossPl1 ImpfPl1Pf-look.after

#10

A: Reewookna teeshkwiina?

reew-ookna t-eeshkwi-ina

A: Do you (Pl) look after your (Pl) cattle?

cattle-PossPl2 ImpfPl2Pf-look.after-ImpfPl2

#11

Baraakna shaakwanaabaana?

baraakna shaakwanaab-aana

Are you (Pl) herdsmen?

Pl2M cowherd-IdPl2M

#12

B: Hinin shaakwanaaba.

hinin shaakwanaab-a

B: We are herdsmen.

Pl1 cowherd-IdPl13M

<363>

١ تُمَدرَسه هَنكْوٍيرهۆب, ٢نان داتِنِيه? ٣رێوُ ێشكْوے. ٤رێوۆك تێشكْوِيه? ٥بَرٌوك شاكْوَناوه? ٦ أَنے شاكْوَنابُ. ٧تُمَدرَسه هَنكْوٍيرهۆب, ٨نان داتێنه? ٩رێوۆن نێشكْوے. ١٠ رێوۆكنه تێشكْوٍينه? ١١ بَراكنه شاكْوَنابانه? ١٢ هِنِن شاكْوَنابه.

Special Strong Verbs

<364>

Some very frequent verbs have forms which differ considerably from the CiCiC pattern (e.g. they have only one syllable, or they start or end with h or hamzah etc.)

<365>

The strong verb kaya 'to be, become' is already familiar from the negation of adjectives. The negative prefix is ki-.

Ashshigaab kaaki.

I am not in a hurry, fast.

أششِقاب كاكے.

Ashshigaab kittaa.

You (M) are not in a hurry, fast.

أششِقاب كِتّا.

Ashshigaat kittaayi.

You (F) are not in a hurry, fast.

أششِقات كِتّايے.

Ashshigaab kiiki.

He is not in a hurry, fast.

أششِقاب كٍيكے.

Ashshigaat kitti.

She is not in a hurry, fast.

أششِقات كِتّے.

Ashshigaab kinki.

We are not in a hurry, fast.

أششِقاب كِنكے.

Ashshigaab kitteena.

You (Pl) are not in a hurry, fast.

أششِقاب كِتّێنه.

Ashshigaab kiikeen.

They are not in a hurry, fast.

أششِقاب كٍيكێن.

<366>

The positive past forms of the same verb look different, because they have t+k where the negative forms have t+t.

Handhiwaayiib / Handiiwaab aki.

I became a Hadendowa [16]. (M)

هَنڈِوايٍيب أكے.

Handhiwaayiib tikaya.